The contemporary city
Latest articles A decadal evolution of landslides and debris flows after the Wenchuan earthquake. The effects of flood history on sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers. Latest issues Volume In progress 15 December Volume In progress 1 December Volume In progress 15 November Find out more About the journal.
Articles in press Latest published articles Research article Abstract only Inferring mean rates of sediment yield and catchment erosion from reservoir siltation in the Kruger National Park, South Africa: Research article Abstract only The trouble with shear stress.
Research article Abstract only Three-dimensional flow structure, morphodynamics, suspended sediment, and thermal mixing at an asymmetrical river confluence of a straight tributary and curving main channel. Research article Abstract only A progressive entrainment runout model for debris flow analysis and its application.
Research article Abstract only Permafrost activity and atmospheric warming in the Argentinian Andes. The Genealogia Zaringorum names " Sophya soror Heinrici ducis Saxonie " as wife of " Berchtoldus ", specifying that they were childless and that she married secondly " comiti de Stire " .
She became a nun at Admont after her second husband died. A charter dated to  exchanges of property between " Uuolfker sacerdos " and " domine Sophie marchionisse et filio eius Otacro marchioni " . A charter dated 22 Feb , which records the foundation of Kloster Reun, lists donations by " domina Sophia marchionissa…cum filio marchione Otakro " for the souls of " filii ac filiarum Otakri…marchionis, Elisabeth ac Margarethe " .
The Historia Welforum names in order " Iuditham, Sophiam, Mahtildem, Wulfildem " as the four daughters of " Heinricus dux ex Wulfilde ", specifying that Judith married " Friderico Suevorum duci " . The Historia Welforum names in order " Iuditham, Sophiam, Mahtildem, Wulfildem " as the four daughters of " Heinricus dux ex Wulfilde ", specifying that Mathilde married firstly " Theopaldo filio Theopaldi marchionis de Voheburch " and secondly " Gebehardo de Sulzbach " .
He founded Kloster Steingaden in Welf was heavily defeated at Flochberg near Nördlingen in Feb and reached a peace settlement with King Konrad in . Vogt von Zwiefalten Short of money, Welf gradually returned his Italian lands to Emperor Friedrich I, and from ceased to use his Italian titles.
She founded Kloster Allerheiligen in Duke of Spoleto He died of malaria while fighting on Emperor Friedrich I's Italian expedition of . The Hugonis Ratisponensis Cronica records the death in of " Welfo filius Welfonis " during the emperor's Italian campaign . The Historia Welforum names in order " Iuditham, Sophiam, Mahtildem, Wulfildem " as the four daughters of " Heinricus dux ex Wulfilde ", specifying that Wulfhild married " Roudolfus Bregantinus comes " .
The Annalista Saxo names " Heinricum inclitum ducem Saxonie et Bawarie et Welfonem et quatuor filias " as the children of Duke Heinrich and his wife Wulfhild, specifying that " terciam nominee Wifhildem " married " Rodolfus comes de Bregence " .
Nun at Wessobrunn Duke Heinrich had one illegitimate child by Mistress 1: Adalbert is unlikely to have been the legitimate son of Duke Heinrich IX as he is not named as such in other sources see above which appear to provide an exclusive list of the duke's children by his wife Wulfhild.
The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis names " Liupoldus " third son of " Liupoldus marchio Austrie " and " Agnetem imperatoris Heinrici IV filiam ", specifying that he was made Duke of Bavaria and was buried " apud Sanctam Crucem " .
Pfalzgraf bei Rhein He was deprived of the duchy of Bavaria in by Friedrich I "Barbarossa" King of Germany in favour of the Welf Duke Heinrich "der Löwe", in order to terminate the German kings' longstanding dispute with the Welf family .
He was created Duke of Austria 8 Sep at Regensburg. The Chronicon Schirense names " Otto palatinus comes " as brother of " Chounradus…Magentinus episcopus ", specifying that he was buried at Scheyern . Graf von Wittelsbach Pfalzgraf von Wittelsbach 8 May Vogt of Freising Cathedral Vogt von Weihenstephan Graf im Kelsgau The Annales Schaftlarienses record the death of " Otto dux " in . The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.
It is not certain that this refers to a daughter of Otto I Duke of Bavaria, as he is only one of several possible " palatini ". The necrology of Undensdorf records the death " Id Jan " of " Agnes filia palatini " . The Kronik van Arent toe Bocop records that " Otto…grave van Gelre " married " des graven docter van Gullick…Richgerda "  , which misstates her origin. Her name is further confirmed by the charter dated under which her grandson " Otto…comes Gelrensis " names " avia mea domina Richardis…avi mei Ottonis comitis " .
Abbess of the Munster Abbey at Roermond. The Chronicon Schirense names " Ludwicum…parvulum " as heir of " Otto palatinus comes " . Wegener cites a source dated [20 Jul] which names Agnes as a widow with her son Ludwig . Ludwig did not receive immediate imperial recognition of this new title: Ludwig was challenged as Pfalzgraf by Heinrich's father, formerly Pfalzgraf Heinrich I, who had given up the Pfalzgrafschaft in favour of his son.
The necrology of Seligenthal records the death " Non Aug " of " domina Ludemia ducissa fundatrix nostra " . The necrology of Fürstenfeld records the death " Non Aug " of " Ludmilla avia fundatoris nostri " . He continued as an active supporter of King Konrad after the election of Willem II Count of Holland as anti-king, although he was prevented from participating in the conflicts of Mar by threats against Bavaria by Wenzel I King of Bohemia .
Duke Otto repulsed an attempted invasion of Bavaria by Siegfried Archbishop of Mainz whom he defeated at Nördlingen . The Altahenses Annales name " Agnes ducissa Bawarie " when recording the birth of her son Ludwig .
The Altahenses Annales record the marriage in of " Chunradus filius Friderici imperatoris " and " Elysabeth filiam Ottonis ducis Bawarie " . Her first marriage was arranged by her future husband to gain Bavarian support against the papal party after his defeat at Frankfurt against Heinrich Raspe anti-King of Germany .
The Altahenses Annales record the second marriage " in octava sancti Mychaelis aput Monacum " of " Meinhardus comes Goricie " and " Elysabeth sororem Ludwici et Heinrici ducem Bawarie relictam Chunradi regis " . She founded Kloster Stams. The necrology of Stams records the death " VI Id Oct " of " domina Elizabeth regina prima fundatrix monasterii " . After joint rule became unworkable, he and his brother agreed a division of the family's territories in , under which Ludwig became Duke of Upper Bavaria Oberbayern and Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.
Rudolf I King of Germany appointed Duke Ludwig to preside over the implementation of his policy of return to the empire of all properties unlawfully appropriated since the deposition of Emperor Friedrich II in , promulgated at the Diet of Nürnburg 19 Nov .
Duke Ludwig objected to his brother's claim to an electoral vote, confirmed in a 29 May agreement between the two designed to settle some of their differences .
The Oude Kronik van Brabant names in order " Mechtildim comitissam Atrebatensem et Sancti Pauli, Mariam comitissam palatinam Reni, Beatricem lantgraviam Thuringie postea comitissam Flandrie, et Margaretam sanctiomonialem, postea abbatissam in Valle Ducis " as the daughters of " Henricus secundus et quintus dux Brabancie " and his first wife Marie . The Annales Mellicenses in record that " Lodwicus Reni comes palatinus " had " Mariam uxorem suam, filiam ducis Brabancie " beheaded by her jailers " apud Werdam " .
The Continuatio Lambacensis clarifies that she was killed because of her adultery . This betrothal was arranged to confirm Duke Ludwig's agreement to support the candidature of Richard Earl of Cornwall as king of Germany, her dowry being 12, marks . The Hermanni Altahenses Annales record that " …in vigilia Iohannis baptiste Rudolfus " captured " Mechtildem matrem suam, relictam Ludwici ducis…et Conradum de Oteling " at " castro Schilperg " and took them to Munich where Konrad von Oteling was beheaded " in die sancte Margarete…propter quondam infamiam " .
The primary source which confirms her existence has not so far been identified. Meisterin at Marienberg near Boppard. He was killed in a tournament. The marriage contract between " domino Lodwico…comite palatino Reni duce Bawarie…Lodwico filio suo primogenito " and " Fridericus…dux Lotringie et marchio…Elyzabet filiam " is dated 27 Nov . The primary source which confirm her second marriage has not so far been identified.
The Ratisponensis Annales name " primogenitus Rudolfus " as one of the two sons of " Ludwicus comes palatinus Reni dux Bawarie " . He associated his brother with the Government or , and partitioned his Bavarian territories with him , becoming Duke of Upper Bavaria. However, his brother deprived him of this in and forced him to abdicate in his favour The necrology of Fürstenfeld records the death " Id Aug " of " Rudolfus dux filius fundatoris nostri " .
A charter dated 28 Feb records the agreement between " domino Lodwico comiti palatino Reni et duci Bawarie " and " Otto…dux de Braunswich et Luneburch " regarding the marriage of the latter with " una filiarum " of the former .
Her origin is confirmed by the charter dated 21 Aug under which " Ludowicus…Romanorum Rex " granted rights to " Sophie …sororis nostre Agnetis, relicte quondam Henrici Marchionis Brandenburgensis, filie " . In , Ludwig became sole Duke of Bavaria. He deprived his brother Rudolf I of the Palatinate , and forced him to abdicate in his favour from which time Ludwig governed all the territories alone. Crowned King of Italy at Milan 31 May After joint rule became unworkable, he and his brother agreed a division of the family's territories in , under which Heinrich became Duke of Lower Bavaria Niederbayern.
The Altahenses Annales record the marriage in of " Gebhardus comes de Hirzperch " and " Sophiam ducem [Bawarie] sororem " . He claimed the title Pfalzgraf bei Rhein in Dec , and in requested Pope Gregory X to confirm his right to an electoral vote.
While there is no evidence about the response he received, Duke Heinrich did act as the seventh elector in the election of Rudolf von Habsburg as King of Germany in , although his brother Duke Ludwig II registered his non-recognition of his brother's right 29 May .
He founded the Cistercian Order near Passau The Altahenses Annales record the marriage of " Heinricus filius O. Agnes is named in Europäische Stammtafeln  , together with her dates, but the primary source which confirms this information has not yet been identified. The Altahenses Annales record the birth " in secundo vespera sancti Gregorii " of " Elysabeth ducissa Bavare filiam…Elyzabeth " .
The Altahenses Annales record that " Elisabeth virgo, filia Heinrici ducis Bawaria, 13 annum " became a nun " in monasterio Landshut " in . Nun at Kloster Seligenthal. The necrology of Seligenthal records the death " VI Id Aug " of " domina Elizabet, domini Heinrici ducis Bawarie filia, monialis et professa huius domus, ligt bei uns begraben " .
The primary source which confirms her date of birth has not been identified, but the order of the names in the charter dated 6 Dec suggests that Agnes was younger than her sister Elisabeth, unless Elisabeth was accorded precedence due to seniority in their relative positions in Kloster Seligenthal.
The Altahenses Annales record the birth " in proxima nocte post sancta Scolastice virginis " of " domina Elysabeth ducissa Bauwarie filium…Ottonem " . He was captured in by supporters of Charles Robert and released only when he agreed to abandon his claim . The primary source which confirms her name has not yet been identified. Her marriage was arranged after her future father-in-law swore allegiance to her father in , with a dowry of 40, marks.
The alliance broke down shortly after the marriage took place, the dowry being underpaid by 3, marks . The Chronicon Osterhoviense records the marriage in of " dominus Otto rex Ungarie " and " filiam ducis Glowie…Elyzabet ", although a later passage names her " Agnete…ducissa Gloavie " . She married secondly Alram Graf von Hals. The Continuatio Weichardi de Polhaim records the successive births in in Vienna of two sons to " Ottonem, filium Heinrici ducis Bavarie " and his wife " Katherina, filia regis Romanorum ", and their death, but does not name them .
The primary source which confirms his existence has not so far been identified. The Chronicon Osterhoviense names " Heinricum " as son of " dominus Otto rex Ungarie dux Bawarie " and his wife " filiam ducis Glowie…Elyzabet " . The primary source which confirms her first marriage has not so far been identified. Reni et Ducibus Bawarie fratribus nostris ", refers to a projected marriage between " Domini Ducis…filium et Elisabeth filiam nostrum " .
The Hermanni Altahenses Annales record the death " in Landshut in festo Penthecostes " of " Hainricus dux frater Ottonis et Stephani " and his burial in Landshut  , the name " Hainricus " presumably being an error for " Ludwicus ". Bishop-elect of Salzburg Canon at Passau Cathedral He died of plague. Regent of Görz and Regent of Treviso Her marriage is deduced from the necrology of Seligenthal which records the death " XVI Kal Apr " of " dominus Iohannes com de Görtze, filius domine Beatricis nobilis ducisse Bawarie " .
The necrology of Seligenthal records the death " II Kal Mai " of " domina Beatrix ducissa Bavarie et com a de Goerzen "  , although the year appears incorrect. Duke Heinrich II had one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress: The necrology of Königsfelden records the death " II Kal May " of " domina Elizabet ducissa Austrie relicta quondam ducis Ottonis "  , implying, it appears incorrectly, that her husband predeceased her.
The Necrologium Austriacum records the death " in die annunciacionis S Marie virginis " of " Elyzabeth ducissa Austrie conthuralis Ottonis ducis Austrie et filia Stephani ducis Babarie " and her burial " in Novo Monte " . The necrology of Seligenthal records the death " VIII Kal Apr " of " domina Elizabeth iunior, inclita ducissa Bawarie et Austrie "  , although the reason for her being called " iunior " in this entry is not clear.
The necrology of Seligenthal records the death " Non Mar " of " nobilis domina Richardis ducissa Bawarie comitissa palatina Reni " . He deprived his brother Rudolf I of the Palatinate in , and forced him to abdicate in his favour in from which time Ludwig governed all the territories alone.
After several years of war with his rival in Germany, Lud wig defeated and captured Friedrich of Austria at Mühldorf, near the River Inn, in Ludwig was actively opposed by Pope John XXII who accused him of assuming the German throne without papal confirmation, excommunicated him and placed the whole of Germany under an interdict in . In , he finally recognised Friedrich as joint-king. Ludwig's anti-papal position received support in Germany from , when the electors declared in his favour at Obstgaten near Rhens on 16 Jun , issuing a treaty for the preservation of imperial and electoral prerogatives .
In , Ludwig recognised the claim of Edward III King of England to the French throne and prepared for war with France, though eventually adopted a position of neutrality in the dispute . Ludwig alienated his ecclesiastical supporters in when he arranged the divorce of Margareta "Maultasch" Gräfin von Tirol from her first husband and her remarriage to his son Ludwig. He was declared deposed 11 Jul , and Charles de Luxembourg was chosen as his successor.
He died during a bear hunt when he had a stroke and fell from his horse . The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records that " dominus Ludewicus et rex Anglie et marchio Iuliacensis " had married " tres…sorores…fillies comitis Hannonie sive Hollandie " .
She abdicated 7 Dec The Cronica Reinhardsbrunnensis records the marriage in in Nürnberg of " marchio Fredericus iunior " and " filis regis Romanorum Mechtildis " . The Annales Veterocellenses record the death " …die Processi et Marthinieni " of " Mechtidis marchionissa " . Duke of Carinthia and Graf von Tirol He and his brothers partitioned their territories , he kept Upper Bavaria.
He abdicated in Brandenburg in favour of his younger half-brother Ludwig VI. The marriage contract between " Ludouicum, marchionum Brandenburgensem, primogenitum…Ludouici Romanorum Regis " and " Christoforus…Danorum Saluorumque Rex, Dux Estonie…Margaretham filiam nostram " is dated 13 Jul , witnessed by " …filium nostrum dominum Erycum " . The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records the divorce in Nov of " filia ducis Heinrici Carinthie sive comitis Tyrolis " and " Iohanni filio Iohannis regis Bohemie " and her marriage " in die sancte Scholastice " in Feb to " marchioni Brandenburgensi " .
This marriage was agreed by her future father-in-law King Ludwig IV after he arranged her divorce from her first husband . The Benessii de Weitmil Chronicon records that " Karolus…fratrem suum Iohannem…Comitis Tyrolis " repudiated his wife, after she conspired against him with her illegitimate son Albert, and that she married " Ludwico, filio Bauri, Marchionis Brandeburgensi " .
The burials of Minoritenkirche, Vienna records the death in of " Margareta marchionissa de Tyrolis in Athaso " .
The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records the marriage in of " rex Ungarie Karolus…frater suus iunior " and " sororem ducum Bawarie, filiam Ludewici " . Duke of Slavonia Nun at Fontenelles near Valenciennes. He and his brothers partitioned their territories , he kept Upper Bavaria jointly until when he succeeded on the abdication of his older half-brother Ludwig V as Markgraf von Brandenburg.
The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records that " comes Hannonie et Hollandie…soror…[et] dominum Ludewicum de Bawaria…filio…primogenito " married " rex Cracovie filiam " . Her marriage was arranged to confirm the renewed alliance between her father and the Wittelsbach Markgraf of Brandenburg . The History of Henricus Dapifer de Diessenhoven records that " aliam…filiam [Ludewici] " married " filius Canis dominus Verone ", dated to from the context .
The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis Continuatio records that " filio Mastini Veronensis " married " Ludewicus…sororem, quondam Ludewici principis filiam " . The Chronicon of Pietro Azario records that " Canemsignorium " proposed to marry " Dominam cognatam viduam " after the death of her husband but that she refused .
He succeeded in as Signor di Verona. He and his brothers partitioned their territories in , he kept Lower Bavaria jointly. Willem took up arms against his mother, finally forcing her to yield 7 Dec However, the Dutch refused to accept this and in practice Willem governed alone. As a result of a further partition in , he received Straubing jointly with his brother Albrecht. As a result of a further partition in , he received Straubing jointly with his brother Wilhelm.
Named Protector of Hainaut, Holland and Seeland in , on behalf of his brother who had become insane. He and his brothers partitioned their territories in , he kept Upper Bavaria jointly which he renounced in favour of his brother Ludwig V who in return renounced Brandenburg in his favour minor until He ruled alone in Brandenburg in , the territory being ceded to the emperor in Duke of Lower Bavaria The Necrologium Austriacum refers to the wife of Duke Rudolf as " kayser Karls tochter des vierten " .
The Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium records the death in of " rege Suecie Erico…uxor sua Beatrix, primogenitus suus " and names " pater suus Magnus rex Suecie " . He and his brothers partitioned their territories , he kept Lower Bavaria jointly.
As a result of a further partition in , he received Landshut. He inherited Upper Bavaria from his nephew Meinhard, also claiming Tirol which he was forced to concede to Austria in The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis records the death in of " filia regis Cecilie uxor Stephani ducis Bavarie " . The Chronicle of Matthias Nueweburgensis records that " Stephani ducis Bavarie " married " filiam burggravii de Nürenberg " after the death of his first wife .
When he and his brothers partitioned the territories , he kept Ingolstadt. The name of Duke Stefan's mistress is not known. Comte de Mortain , as part of the dowry of his second wife. Deposed and imprisoned by his son The anonymous midth century Chronicon Suevico-Bavaricum records in error for ?
The name of Duke Ludwig's second mistress is not known. She married thirdly Martin von Waldenfels zu Wartenfels -before 7 May The necrology of Seligenthal records the death " V Kal Aug " of " domina Margaretha uxor et vidua principis Ludowici iunioris Bavarie, dise fürstin ist bei uns begraben " .
He was legitimated by Pope Martin V . He was poisoned in . She married secondly 30 Nov Otto Schenk von Erbach. Her parentage and second marriage are confirmed by the following document: Appointed President of the Council of Regency 26 Apr during the periods of insanity of her husband. She proclaimed herself regent in Duke Stefan had one illegitimate child by Mistress 1: Bishop of Regensburg When he and his brothers partitioned the territories in , he kept Landshut.
When he and his brothers partitioned the territories , he kept Munich. The necrology of Seligenthal records the death " II Non Dec " of " dominus Fridericus dux Bavarie com palatinus Reni, ist bei uns begraben " .
A charter dated 9 Apr notifies the marriage by proxy between " dominum Federichum Bavarie ducem " and " Magdalenam natam…Bernabos Vicecomes " . The Liber defunctorum of Raitenhaslach records the death of " d a Magdalena ducissa Bauarie ux d i Friderici principis et ducis Bauarie, d a Magdalena ducissa filia eius " . The Liber defunctorum of Raitenhaslach records the death of " d a Margareta ducissa Bauarie filia d i Friderici principis et ducis Bauarie sepultus ante altare " .
The name of Duke Heinrich's mistress or mistresses is not known. The Liber defunctorum of Raitenhaslach records the death " Kal Ian " of " Albertus dux Bauarie fil d i Heinrici principis et ducis Bauarie…hic sepultus " . However, three of his known children are recorded in the necrological records of the same monastery, as are he and his wife. Duke Heinrich IV had three illegitimate children by his Mistresses: Founded the University of Ingolstadt The name of Duke Georg's mistress is not known.
Member of the Benedictine Order Abbess at Neuburg an der Donau Duke Georg had one illegitimate child by Mistress 1: The necrology of Unteraltaich records the death " V Kal Mar " of " dux Philippus comes palatinus Rheni " adding that " hic Georgii ducis Bavarie sororem habuit uxorem " .
ANNA b and d , bur Seligenthal. The necrology of Seligenthal records the death " X Kal Jul " of " domina Kartarina ducissa Babarie, filia comitis de Dierol…ligt bei uns begraben " . The name of Duke Johann's mistress is not known. Duke of Bavaria in Munich Protektor of the Council of Basel The names of Duke Wilhelm's mistresses are not known. Duke Wilhelm IV had five illegitimate children by Mistress 1 - 5: Wilhelm had one illegitimate child by Mistress 1: Crowned Queen of Bohemia 15 Mar Duke Johann had [one illegitimate child] by Mistress 1: The Gesta Episcoporum Frisingensium record that " Iohannes Gruenwalder, decretorum doctor, filius ducis Stefani de Bavaria, illegitime tamen natus…minor annis esset " was a candidate for the bishopric of Freising in , when " Nicodemus de la Scala " was chosen as bishop, and elected Bishop in It appears chronologically unlikely that Johann Grünwalder was the son of either of the Dukes Stefan of Bavaria, but the primary source which identifies him as the son of Duke Johann has not been identified.
He died in Vienna in and was buried at Freising . The necrology of Seligenthal records the death " Kal Jul " of " dominus Ernestus dux Bavarie com palatinus Reni " . ANNA Kräzl , daughter of Mistress 2 - 4: The names of Duke Albrecht's mistresses are not known. Duke Sigmund had two illegitimate children by Mistress 1: Duke Sigmund had one illegitimate child by Mistress 2: Canon at Augsburg cathedral , resigned. Priest at Habach Canon at Köln cathedral , resigned. Co-Regent of Bavaria Canon at Passau cathedral , at Augsburg cathedral , and at Köln cathedral Nun at Munich St.
Mundkoch to the Duke. Canon and doctor of jurisprudence. The primary source which confirms her second marriage has not been identified. Duke Ernst had three illegitimate children by Mistress 1: The reconstruction of the later Dukes of Bavaria has been copied from published secondary sources which appear to be reliable. The information has not been verified against primary source documentation, unless otherwise stated.
He reunited most of Bavaria under one rule, and introduced the rule of primogeniture 8 Jul Sabine fled to the court of Bavaria in , fearing for her life following her husband's crime. Her brother Wilhelm Duke of Bavaria brought her children to her in Even after her husband's return to Württemberg in , she remained in Bavaria. She returned to Württemberg after her husband died with their son Christoph.
Wilhelm IV had one illegitimate child by Mistress 1: Wilhelm IV had one illegitimate child by Mistress 2: Provost of Freising cathedral , resigned. Ludwig had one i llegitimate child by an unknown mistress: Coadjutor of Passau , Administrator Provost of Eichstätt cathedral and , resigned. Canon at Köln cathedral Administrator of Salzburg She became a Clarissan nun after her husband died. Canon at Freising cathedral , at Köln cathedral Bishop of Freising Canon at Würzburg cathedral Coadjutor of Hildesheim Canon at Mainz Bishop of Hildesheim Provost at Magdenburg cathedral Coadjutor of Köln Archbishop-Elector of Köln Bishop of Münster Ernst had one illegitimate child by Mistress 1: Legitimated and ennobled "von Bayern" by Imperial order at Prague 8 Nov Provost of St Severin at Köln Ernst had three illegitimate children by Mistress 2: In the case of the larger firms the mark also has publicity value and shows the buyer that the object was made by a long-established firm with a reputation to uphold; such clear name- marks as Minton, Wedgwood, Royal Crown Derby and Royal Worcester are typical examples.
To the collector the mark has greater importance, for not only can he trace the manufacturer of any marked object, but he can also ascertain the approximate date of manufacture and in several cases the exact year of production, particularly in the case of 19th and 20th century wares from the leading firms which employed private dating systems. With the increasing use of ceramic marks in the 19th century, a large proportion of English pottery and porcelain can be accurately identified and often dated.
How marks are applied: Ceramic marks are applied in four basic ways: This type of mark is usually used by small volume studio potteries.