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Representatives of all 28 Protestant churches were to attend the newly created National Synod to confirm Müller as Reich's Bishop. Nur so können Sie sich selbst ein Bild von den Mitgliedern machen und entscheiden ob diese Kontaktbörse für Sie perfekt ist.

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Warum Sie für jede Machen Sie's sich nicht unnötig schwer. Wir haben 4 leckere Varianten für ein abwechslungsreiches With this introduction, the dissent against the agenda was greatly reduced. However, a significant minority felt this was merely a temporary political compromise with which the king could continue his ongoing campaign to establish a civil authority over their freedom of conscience.

In June , Frederick William ordered that all Protestant congregations and clergy in Prussia give up the names Lutheran or Reformed and take up the name Evangelical. The decree was not to enforce a change of belief or denomination, but was only a change of nomenclature. Subsequently, the term Evangelical German: In April , Frederick William, in his instructions for the upcoming celebration of the th anniversary of the presentation of the Augsburg Confession , ordered all Protestant congregations in Prussia to celebrate the Lord's Supper using the new agenda.

Rather than having the unifying effect that Frederick William desired, the decree created a great deal of dissent amongst Lutheran congregations. In a compromise with some dissenters, who had now earned the name Old Lutherans , in Frederick William issued a decree, which stated that Union would only be in the areas of governance, and in the liturgical agenda, and that the respective congregations could retain their denominational identities.

Becoming aware of this defiance, officials sought out those who acted against the decree. Pastors, who were caught, were suspended from their ministry. If suspended pastors were caught acting in a pastoral role, they were imprisoned. Having now shown his hand as a tyrant bent on oppressing their religious freedom, and under continual police surveillance, the Evangelical Church in the Royal Prussian Lands began disintegrating.

By many dissenting Old Lutheran groups were looking to emigration as a means to finding religious freedom. The latter emigration led to the formation of the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod , today the second largest Lutheran denomination in the U.

The former emigration led to the eventual creation of the Lutheran Church of Australia which was formed in He released the pastors who had been imprisoned, and allowed the dissenting groups to form religious organisations in freedom. In the Old Lutherans , who had stayed in Prussia, convened in a general synod in Breslau and founded the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Prussia , which merged in with Old Lutheran church bodies in other German states to become today's Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church German: On 23 July the royal government recognised the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Prussia and its congregations as legal entities.

In the prevailingly Catholic principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , ruled by Catholic princely branches of the Hohenzollern family, joined the Kingdom of Prussia and became the Province of Hohenzollern. There had hardly been any Protestants in the tiny area, but with the support from Berlin congregational structures were built up.

Until three later altogether five congregations were founded and in organised as a deanery of its own. The congregations were stewarded by the Evangelical Supreme Church Council see below like congregations of expatriates abroad.

Only on 1 January the congregations became an integral part of the Prussian state church. No separate ecclesiastical province was established, but the deanery was supervised by that of the Rhineland.

After the trouble with the Old Lutherans in pre Prussia, the Prussian government refrained from imposing the Prussian Union onto the church bodies in these territories.

Also the reconciliation of the Lutheran majority of the citizens in the annexed states with their new Prussian citizenship was not to be further complicated by religious quarrels. Its bishops and clergy proselytised in the Holy Land among the non-Muslim native population and German immigrants, such as the Templers. But also Calvinist, Evangelical and Lutheran expatriates from Germany and Switzerland, living in the Holy Land, joined the German-speaking congregations.

But there were also congregations of emigrants and expatriates in other areas of the Ottoman Empire 2 , as well as in Argentina 3 , Brasil 10 , Bulgaria 1 , Chile 3 , Egypt 2 , Italy 2 , the Netherlands 2 , Portugal 1 , Romania 8 , Serbia 1 , Spain 1 , Switzerland 1 , United Kingdom 5 , and Uruguay 1 and the foreign department of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council see below stewarded them.

Evangelischer Oberkirchenrat , EOK, [12] est. The general synod first convened in June , presided by Daniel Neander, consisting of representatives of the clergy, the parishioners and members nominated by the king. The general synod found an agreement on the teaching and the ordination, but the king did not confirm any of its decisions.

Kirchenprovinz ; see ecclesiastical province of the Evangelical State Church of Prussia , in the nine pre political provinces of Prussia, to wit in the Province of East Prussia homonymous ecclesiastical province , in Berlin, which had become a separate Prussian administrative unit in , and the Province of Brandenburg Ecclesiastical Province of the March of Brandenburg for both , in the Province of Pomerania homonymous , in the Province of Posen homonymous , in the Rhine Province and since in the Province of Hohenzollern Ecclesiastical Province of the Rhineland , in the Province of Saxony homonymous , in the Province of Silesia homonymous , in the Province of Westphalia homonymous , and in the Province of West Prussia homonymous.

Every ecclesiastical province had a provincial synod representing the provincial parishioners and clergy [15] , and one consistory or more , led by general superintendents Gen. The two western provinces, Rhineland and Westphalia, had the strongest Calvinist background, since they were including the territories of the former Duchies of Berg , Cleves , Juliers and the Counties of Mark , Tecklenburg , the Siegerland , and the Principality of Wittgenstein , all of which had Calvinist traditions.

Already in the provincial church constitutions German: Provinzial-Kirchenordnung provided for a general superintendent and congregations in both ecclesiastical provinces with presbyteries of elected presbyters. Prussia's then minister of education and religious affairs, Adalbert Falk , put the bill through, which extended the combined Rhenish and Westphalian presbyterial and consistorial church constitution to all the Evangelical State Church in Prussia.

In the Rhineland and Westphalia a presbytery is called in German: Presbyterium , a member thereof is a Presbyter , while in the other provinces the corresponding terms are Gemeindekirchenrat congregation council with its members being called Älteste elder.

Authoritarian traditions competed with liberal and modern ones. Committed congregants formed parties cf. A strong party were the Konfessionellen the denominationals , representing congregants of Lutheran tradition, who had succumbed in the process of uniting the denominations after and still fought the Prussian Union. Mittelpartei , affirming the Prussian Union, criticising the Higher criticism in Biblical science , but still claiming the freedom of science also in theology.

Therefore, the Positive Union often formed coalitions with the Konfessionellen. The ever-growing societal segment of the workers among the Evangelical parishioners had little affinity to the Church, which was dominated in their pastors and functionaries by members of the bourgeoisie and aristocracy.

However, it earned the queen the nickname Kirchen-Juste. Modern anti-Semitism , emerging in the s, with its prominent proponent Heinrich Treitschke and its famous opponent Theodor Mommsen , a son of a pastor and later Nobel Prize laureate , found also supporters among the proponents of traditional Protestant Anti-Judaism as promoted by the Prussian court preacher Adolf Stoecker. The new King William II dismissed him in for the reason of his political agitation by his anti-Semitic Christian Social Party , neo-paganism and personal scandals.

The intertwining of most leading clerics and church functionaries with traditional Prussian elites brought about that the State Church considered the First World War as a just war. With the end of the Prussian monarchy in also the king's function as summus episcopus Supreme Governor of the Evangelical Church ceased to exist. Furthermore, the Weimar Constitution of decreed the separation of state and religion.

The new name was after a denomination, not after a state any more. It became a difficult task to maintain the unity of the church, with some of the annexing states being opposed to the fact that church bodies within their borders keep a union with German church organisations. The territory comprising the Ecclesiastical Province of Posen was now largely Polish, and except of small fringes that of West Prussia had been either seized by Poland or Danzig.

Unierte Evangelische Kirche in Polen , Polish: The United Evangelical Church in Poland also incorporated the Evangelical congregations in Pomerellia , ceded by Germany to Poland in February , which prior used to belong to the Ecclesiastical Province of West Prussia , as well as the congregations in Soldau and 32 further East Prussian municipalities, [29] which Germany ceded to Poland on 10 January , prior belonging to the Ecclesiastical Province of East Prussia.

A number of congregations lay in those northern and western parts of the Province of Posen , which were not annexed by Poland and remained with Germany. They were united with those congregations of the western most area of West Prussia, which remained with Germany, to form the new Posen-West Prussian ecclesiastical province. They continue to exist until this very day. Landessynodalverband der Freien Stadt Danzig. This enabled the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union to sign a contract with the Memel autonomous government German: The constitution of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union included much stronger presbyterial structures and forms of parishioners' democratic participation in church matters.

The parishioners of a congregation elected a presbytery and a congregants' representation German: A number of congregations formed a deanery German: Kirchenkreis , holding a deanery synod German: Kreissynode of synodals elected by the presbyteries. The deanery synodals elected the deanery synodal board German: Kreissynodalvorstand , in charge of the ecclesiastical supervision of the congregations in a deanery, which was chaired by a superintendent, appointed by the provincial church council German: Provinzialkirchenrat after a proposal of the general superintendent.

The consistory was the provincial administrative body, whose members were appointed by the Evangelical Supreme Church Council. Each consistory was chaired by a general superintendent, being the ecclesiastical, and a consistorial president German: Konsistorialpräsident , being the administrative leader.

The provincial synods and the provincial church councils elected from their midst the synodals of the general synod , the legislative body of the overall Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union. The general synod elected the church senate German: Kirchensenat , the governing board presided by the praeses of the general synod, elected by the synodals. Johann Friedrich Winckler held the office of praeses from until The church senate appointed the members of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council , the supreme administrative entity, which again appointed the members of the consistories.

The majority of parishioners stayed in a state of unease with the changes and many were skeptical towards the democracy of the Weimar Republic. Nationalist convervative groups dominated the general synods. The traditional affinity to the former princely holders of the summepiscopacy often continued. So when in the leftist parties successfully launched a plebiscite to the effect of the expropriation of the German former regnal houses without compensation, the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union called up for an abstention from the election, holding up the commandment Thou shalt not steal.

A problem was the spiritual vacuum, which emerged after the church stopped being a state church. Otto Dibelius , since general superintendent of Kurmark within the Ecclesiastical Province of the March of Brandenburg , published his book Das Jahrhundert der Kirche The century of the Church [33] , in which he declared the 20th century to be the era when the Evangelical Church may for the first time develop freely and gain the independence God would have wished for, without the burden and constraints of the state church function.

In this respect Dibelius regarded himself as consciously anti-Jewish, explaining in a circular to the pastors in his general superintendency district of Kurmark , "that with all degenerating phenomena of modern civilisation Judaism plays a leading role".

While this new self-conception helped the activists within the church, the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union could not increase the number of its activists. In Berlin the number of activists made up maybe 60, to 80, persons of an overall number of parishioners of more than 3 millions within an overall of more than 4 million Berliners. In the early and mids the annual number of secessions amounted to about 80, In the field of church elections committed congregants formed new church parties, which nominated candidates for the elections of the presbyteries and synods of different level.

As reaction to this politicisation the Evangelisch-unpolitische Liste EuL, Evangelical unpolitical List emerged, which ran for mandates besides the traditional Middle Party , Positive Union and another new party, the Jungreformatorische Bewegung Young Reformatory Movement. Glaubensbewegung Deutsche Christen , DC , participating on 12—14 November for the first time in the elections for presbyters and synodals within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union and gaining about a third of the seats in presbyteries and synods.

In the inter-war years the general synod convened five times. After the system of state churches had disappeared with the monarchies in the German states, the question arose, why the Protestant church bodies within Germany did not merge.

Besides the smaller Protestant denominations of the Mennonites, Baptists or Methodists, which were organised crossing state borders along denominational lines, there were 29 later 28 church bodies organised along territorial borders of German states or Prussian provinces.

In fact, a merger was permanently under discussion, but never materialised due to strong regional self-confidence and traditions as well as the denominational fragmentation into Lutheran, Calvinist and United and uniting churches. Following the Schweizerischer Evangelischer Kirchenbund Swiss Federation of Protestant Churches of , the then 29 territorially defined German Protestant church bodies founded the Deutscher Evangelischer Kirchenbund German Federation of Protestant Churches in , which was no new merged church, but a loose confederacy of the existing independent church bodies.

Most clerics, representatives and parishioners welcomed the Nazi takeover. Most Protestants suggested that the mass arrests, following the abolition of central civic rights by Paul von Hindenburg on 28 February , hit the right persons.

On 20 March Dachau concentration camp , the first official premise of its kind, was opened, while , hastily arrested inmates were held in hundreds of spontaneous so-called wild concentration camps, to be gradually evacuated into about new official camps to be opened until the end of On 21 March the newly elected Reichstag convened in the Evangelical Garrison Church of Potsdam , an event commemorated as the Day of Potsdam , and the locally competent Gen. Even after this clearly anti-Semitic action he repeated in his circular to the pastors of Kurmark on the occasion of Easter 16 April his anti-Jewish attitude, giving the same words as in The Nazi Reich's government, aiming at streamlining the Protestant churches, recognised the German Christians as its means to do so.

On 4 and 5 April representatives of the German Christians convened in Berlin and demanded the dismissal of all members of the executive bodies of the 28 Protestant church bodies in Germany. Reichsbischof , abolishing all democratic participation of parishioners in presbyteries and synods. Furthermore, the German Christians demanded to purify Protestantism of all Jewish patrimony.

Judaism should no longer be regarded a religion, which can be adopted and given up, but a racial category which were genetic. Thus German Christians opposed proselytising among Jews. Protestantism should become a pagan kind heroic pseudo-Nordic religion. Of course the Old Testament , which includes the Ten Commandments and the virtue of charity taken from the Torah , Book of Leviticus I am the LORD. In a mood of an emergency through an impending Nazi takeover functionaries of the then officiating executive bodies of the 28 Protestant church bodies stole a march on the German Christians.

This caused the later confusion when the streamlined Reich church and the Confessing Church alike identified as being the legitimate church of that name. The Nazi government compelled the negotiators to include its representative, the former army chaplain Ludwig Müller from Königsberg , a devout German Christian. The plans were to dissolve the German Evangelical Church Confederation and the 28 church bodies and to replace them by a uniform Protestant church, to be called the German Evangelical Church German: On 27 May representatives of the 28 church bodies gathered in Berlin and against a minority, voting for Ludwig Müller , Friedrich von Bodelschwingh , head of the Bethel Institution and member of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , was elected Reich's Bishop, a newly created title.

Thus the Nazis, who were permanently breaking the law, stepped in, using the streamlined Prussian government, and declared the functionaries had exceeded their authority. Once the Nazi government figured out that the Protestant church bodies would not be streamlined from within using the German Christians , they abolished the constitutional freedom of religion and religious organisation, declaring the unauthorised election of Bodelschwingh had created a situation contravening the constitutions of the Protestant churches, and on these grounds, on 24 June the Nazi Minister of Cultural Affairs, Bernhard Rust appointed August Jäger as Prussian State Commissioner for the Prussian ecclesiastical affairs German: This act clearly violated the status of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union as statutory body German: Körperschaft des öffentlichen Rechts and subjecting it to Jäger's orders see Struggle of the Churches , German: On 28 June Jäger appointed Müller as new Reich's Bishop and on 6 July as leader of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , then with 18 million parishioners by far the biggest Protestant church body within Germany, with 41 million Protestants altogether total population: Kapler resigned as president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council , after he had applied for retirement on 3 June, and Gen.

Wilhelm Haendler competent for Berlin's suburbia , then presiding the March of Brandenburg Consistory retired for age reasons. Then the German Christian Dr. Many pastors protested that and held instead services of penance bearing the violation of the church constitution in mind. On 11 July German-Christian and intimidated non-such representatives of all the 28 Protestant church bodies in Germany declared the German Evangelical Church Confederation to be dissolved and the German Evangelical Church to be founded.

On 14 July Hesse, Kapler and Marahrens presented the newly developed constitution of the German Evangelical Church , which the Nazi government declared to be valid. The new synods of the 28 Protestant churches were to declare their dissolution as separate church bodies.

Representatives of all 28 Protestant churches were to attend the newly created National Synod to confirm Müller as Reich's Bishop. Müller already now regarded himself as leader of that new organisation. He established a Spiritual Ministerium German: Since the day Müller had become leader of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union he systematically abolished the intra-organisational democracy.

Landesbischof , a title and function non-existing in the constitution of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , and claimed hierarchical supremacy over all clerics and other employees as is usual for Catholic bishops. Under the impression of the government's partiality the other existing lists of opposing candidates united to form the list Evangelical Church. The Gestapo confiscated the office and the printing-press there, in order to hinder any reprint. Thus the turnout in the elections was extraordinarily high, since most non-observant Protestants, who since long aligned with the Nazis, had voted.

They elected a new provincial church council with 8 seats for the German Christians and two for Detlev von Arnim-Kröchlendorff, an esquire owning a manor in Kröchlendorff a part of today's Nordwestuckermark , and Gerhard Jacobi both Gospel and Church. Then the German Christian majority of synodals over 37 nays decided to appeal to the general synod to introduce the so-called Aryan paragraph German: Gerhard Jacobi led the opposing provincial synodals. Other provincial synods demanded the Aryan paragraph too.

By introducing the Nazi racist attitudes into the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , the approving synodals betrayed the Christian sacrament of baptism , according to which this act makes a person a Christian, superseding any other faith, which oneself may have been observing before and knowing nothing about any racial affinity as a prerequisite of being a Christian, let alone one's grandparents' religious affiliation being an obstacle to being Christian.

Therefore unequal rights, due to national or racial arguments, are inacceptable as well as any segregation. The German Christians abused the general synod as a mere acclamation, like a Nazi party convention. Koch and his partisans left the synod.

Provinzialbischof replacing the prior general superintendents. By enabling the dismissal of all Protestants of Jewish descent from jobs with the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union , the official church bodies accepted the Nazi racist doctrine of anti-Semitism. This breach with Christian principles within the range of the church was unacceptable to many church members. Nevertheless, pursuing Martin Luther 's Doctrine of the two kingdoms God rules within the world: Directly within the church and in the state by means of the secular government many church members could not see any basis, how a Protestant church body could interfere with the anti-Semitism performed in the state sphere, since in its self-conception the church body was a religious, not a political organisation.

Among them were Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer , who demanded the church bodies to oppose the abolition of democracy and the unlawfulness in the general political sphere. Herbert Goltzen, Eugen Weschke, and Günter Jacob, three pastors from Lower Lusatia , regarded the introduction of the Aryan paragraph as the violation of the confession. In reaction to the anti-Semitic discriminations within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union the church-aligned Breslauer Christliches Wochenblatt Breslau Christian Weekly published the following criticism in the October edition of Then Christ descends from the Crucifix of the altar and leaves the church.

On 11 September Gerhard Jacobi gathered c. Pfarrernotbund , and so they did, electing Pastor Niemöller their president. In the Covenant counted 7, members, after the number sank to 4,, among them retired pastors, auxiliary preachers and candidates.

First the pastors of Berlin, affiliated with the Covenant, met biweekly in Gerhard Jacobi's private apartment. On 18 September Werner was appointed praeses of the old-Prussian general synod, thus becoming president of the church senate.

Thus the Ecclesiastical Province of the March of Brandenburg , which included Berlin, had two bishops. The synodals were not elected by the parishioners, but two thirds were delegated by the church leaders, now called bishops, of the 28 Protestant church bodies, including the three intact ones, and one third were emissaries of Müller's Spiritual Ministerium.

Only such synodals were admitted, who would "uncompromisingly stand up any time for the National Socialist state" German: The national synod confirmed Müller as Reich's Bishop. The synodals of the national synod decided to waive their right to legislate in church matters and empowered Müller's Spiritual Ministerium to act as he wished.

Furthermore, the national synod usurped the power in the 28 Protestant church bodies and provided the new so-called bishops of the 28 Protestant church bodies with hierarchical supremacy over all clergy and laymen within their church organisation.

The national synod abolished future election for the synods of the 28 Protestant church bodies. Henceforth synodals had to replace two thirds of the outgoing synodals by co-optation, the remaining third was to be appointed by the respective bishop.

The general synod German: The synods of 25 other Protestant church bodies decided the same until the end of This made also the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover one of the few Protestant churches in Germany using the title of bishop already since the s, thus prior to the Nazi era , with State Bishop August Marahrens , change its mind.

But the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover hesitated to openly confront the Nazi Reich's government, still searching for an understanding even after Niemöller, Rabenau and Kurt Scharf Congregation in Sachsenhausen Oranienburg circulated an appeal, calling the pastors up not to fill in the forms, meant to prove their Aryan descent, distributed by the Evangelical Supreme Church Council.

Reinhold Krause, then president of the Greater Berlin section of the German Christians , held a speech, defaming the Old Testament for its alleged "Jewish morality of rewards" German: A wave of protest flooded over the German Christians , which ultimately initiated the decline of that movement.

On 25 November the complete Bavarian section of the German Christians declared its secession. Many presbyters of German Christian alignment retired, tired from disputing. Müller then prompted the arrestment or disciplinary procedures against about 60 pastors alone in Berlin, who had been denounced by spies or congregants of German Christian affiliation. The Gestapo tapped Niemöller's phone and thus learned about his and Walter Künneth 's plan to personally plea Hitler for a dismissal of Ludwig Müller.

The same day Ludwig Müller decreed the Führerprinzip , a hierarchy of subordination to command, within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union. The verdict would have major consequences for the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union.

Furthermore, Müller degraded the legislative provincial synods and the executive provincial church councils into mere advisory boards. In a series of provincial synods the opposition assumed shape. Martin Albertz, elected its first provincial brethren council , comprising Supt. The Gestapo shut down one office of the provincial brethren council after the other. John's Church, Berlin- Moabit.

The Gestapo summoned her more than 40 times and tried to intimidate her, confronting her with the fact that she, being partly of Jewish descent, would have to realise the worst possible treatment in jail. Some functionaries and laymen in the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union opposed the unification of the 28 Protestant church bodies, but many more agreed, but they wanted it under the preservation of the true Protestant faith, not imposed by Nazi partisans. In reaction to the convention and claims of the German Christians non-Nazi Protestants met in Barmen from 29 to 31 May On 29 May those coming from congregations within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union held a separate meeting, their later on so-called first old-Prussian Synod of Confession German: The participants declared this basis to be binding for any Protestant Church deserving that name and confessed their allegiance to this basis see Barmen Theological Declaration.

Henceforth the movement of all Protestant denominations, opposing Nazi adulteration of Protestantism and Nazi intrusion into Protestant church affairs, was called the Confessing Church German: Presbyteries with German Christian majorities often banned Confessing Christians from using church property and even entering the church buildings. Many church employees, who opposed, were dismissed. While the German Christians , holding the majority in most official church bodies, lost many supporters, the Confessing Christians , comprising many authentical persuasive activists, still remained a minority but increased their number.

As compared to the vast majority of indifferent, non-observing Protestants, both movements were marginal. One pre tradition of non-ecclesiastical influence within church structures had made it into the new constitution of the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union of Many of the churches, which had been founded before the 19th century, had a patron holding the ius patronatus , meaning that either the owner of a manor estate in the countryside or a political municipality or city was in charge of maintaining the church buildings and paying the pastor.

No pastor could be appointed without the consent of the patron advowson. This became a curse and a blessing during the Nazi period. While all political entities were Nazi-streamlined they abused the patronage to appoint Nazi-submissive pastors on the occasion of a vacancy. Also estate owners sometimes sided with the Nazis. But more estate owners were conservative and thus rather backed the opposition in the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union. So the congregations under their patronage could often keep or appoint anew a pastor of the intra-church opposition.

On 9 August the Second National Synod , with all synodals again admitted by the Spiritual Ministerium , severed the uniformation of the formerly independent Protestant church bodies, disenfranchising their respective synods to decide in internal church matters.

These pretensions increased the criticism among church members within the streamlined church bodies. The Lutheran church bodies of Bavaria right of the river Rhine and Württemberg again refused to merge in September The imprisonment of their leaders, Bishop Meiser and Bishop Wurm, evoked public protests of congregants in Bavaria right of the river Rhine and Württemberg.

Thus the Nazi Reich's government saw, that the German Christians aroused more and more unrest among Protestants, rather driving people into opposition to the government, than domesticating Protestantism as useful beadle for the Nazi reign. A breakthrough was the verdict of 20 November The court Landgericht I in Berlin decided that all decisions, taken by Müller since he decreed the Führerprinzip within the Evangelical Church of the old-Prussian Union on 26 January, the same year, were to be reversed.

But the prior dismissals of opponents and impositions of loyal German Christians in many church functions were not reversed. Werner regained his authority as president of the Evangelical Supreme Church Council. In autumn the Gestapo ordered the closure of the existing free preachers' seminaries, whose attendance formed part of the obligatory theological education of a pastor. Wer geht schon gern in seiner "Freunde-Community" auf Partnersuche? Jeder frische Singlekontakt würde ja sofort alles über Ihre Freunde und Ihren persönlichen Hintergrund erfahren - noch vor dem ersten Date!

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