What are nutrients?
Since the early s, there has been a slowdown in global trade growth, and the UK has been affected by weakness in its main trading partners. UK goods exports to non- EU countries have increased by The fall in net investment income accounts for the widening in the UK current account deficit in recent years, which the OBR forecasts to reverse when the global economy strengthens. In , the current account deficit was The OBR expects the current account deficit to continue to fall, forecasting the deficit to narrow to GDP growth is revised up in from 2.
The OBR expects the output gap to narrow slowly and to close during The OBR forecasts employment to be Unemployment is forecast to be 5. House price growth has moderated since with prices expected to rise by 6. Real house prices are now 3. The OBR expects house prices to grow by an average of 5.
There have been signs of a response in the housing supply with housing completions in Q3 Household debt as a proportion of income is forecast to remain below its pre-crisis peak while household assets relative to income are expected to remain above pre-crisis levels.
Monetary policy has played a role in supporting the recovery. In November, as required by the MPC remit, the Governor wrote to the Chancellor a fourth open letter in the current series relating to inflation more than a percentage point below target. The Governor has explained that, in September, four-fifths of the shortfall in inflation from target was due to falls in food, energy and other goods prices. Annual growth in the stock of lending to small and medium sized enterprises SMEs also continues to improve, reaching 0.
As one of the most open trading economies in the world, the strength and stability of the global economic recovery is key to UK economic prospects. The UK is inevitably affected by problems in the world economy.
The global economic recovery remains uneven, with weakness driven by the slowdown in emerging markets. Increased risks in the world economy demonstrate the need to continue to repair the UK economy in order to withstand future shocks. In the global economy is forecast to record its lowest growth rate since In advanced economies, the IMF forecasts economic growth to be 2.
In emerging markets, the IMF expects economic growth to slow to 4. Some emerging markets may face increased financial pressure as the US Federal Reserve considers raising its policy interest rate, and are also affected by slower growth in China and lower commodity prices.
Significant progress was made over the course of the last Parliament in fixing the public finances. The deficit has been reduced by almost two thirds as a share of GDP since its peak in As a share of GDP , the OBR forecasts that the deficit will be cut by three quarters in from its peak and eliminated altogether in The OBR now forecasts the economy to continue to grow robustly, and for the public finances to be in a stronger position over the forecast period than at Summer Budget The underlying forecast for tax receipts is stronger and debt interest is lower.
The Spending Review and Autumn Statement sets out how the government will do all of the above. This is a statistical reclassification which does not affect the underlying performance of the economy. The OBR has shown what the forecast made at Summer Budget would have looked like had Housing Associations been included in the public sector then. The reduction in the deficit as a share of GDP between and is mainly due to lower spending as a share of GDP. Total managed expenditure is forecast to decline by 3.
The Charter for Budget Responsibility commits to achieving a surplus on the headline measure of the deficit, PSNB , in and to maintain a surplus in normal times in order to bring down debt as a share of GDP over the long term. Independent monetary policy now delivers low and stable medium-term inflation, to the benefit of the whole economy.
This contrasts with the experience after World War II, when very high inflation, together with artificially low interest rates, played a major role in reducing debt. Once future economic shocks are allowed for, running a deficit to finance capital investment balancing only the current budget and relying on trend economic growth is insufficient to bring down debt, as set out in HM Treasury analysis at Budget The simplicity and clarity of the metric ensure that governments will be held to account for their fiscal policy when the economy is performing well.
This provides flexibility to allow the automatic stabilisers to operate freely when needed. Following a shock, the government of the day will be required to set a plan to return to surplus, including appropriate fiscal targets.
The framework does not prescribe what the targets should be, allowing the government of the day to respond to the circumstances. The end goal is to ensure that long-term debt reduction continues, leaving the country better placed to withstand future economic shocks.
Returning to a surplus in normal times will provide the government of the day with the fiscal space to allow appropriate action to be taken in the face of future shocks. At the beginning of the last Parliament, the government inherited the largest deficit in the post-war period. The gap between the outturn and the forecast series in Chart 1.
The OBR forecasts that the debt target will be met with debt falling by 0. The government introduced the welfare cap at Budget to strengthen control of welfare spending, support fiscal consolidation and improve Parliamentary accountability for the level of welfare spending.
The cap applies to welfare spending in Annually Managed Expenditure with the exception of the state pension and the automatic stabilisers. A full list of benefits and tax credits that are within scope of the welfare cap is set out at Annex B. At the Autumn Statement, the government gives families longer to adjust to the higher wage, lower tax and lower welfare society, by not proceeding with the changes to the tax credit threshold and taper announced at Summer Budget The government has taken action to ensure the cap is met in the medium term, and the government will retain the welfare cap at the current level.
The OBR confirms that in and welfare spending will be within the forecast margin set at the Summer Budget. In line with the requirements of the Charter for Budget Responsibility, and consistent with the Parliamentary accountability for welfare spending intended by the cap, the government will bring forward a debate on a votable motion in the House of Commons.
This Autumn Statement sets out in detail the action the government is taking to ensure that the welfare system is fair to both claimants and taxpayers. The government is committed to returning the financial sector assets acquired in to the private sector. As there is no longer a policy need for the government to hold these assets, it will seek to dispose of them, reducing PSND while maximising value for taxpayers.
The government will make shares in Lloyds Banking Group LBG available for sale to the general public in spring , as part of its plan to fully exit from its stake in LBG. Members of the public will receive incentives including a discount and bonus shares. The Spending Review sets out how the government will deliver on its priorities, to eliminate the deficit, and deliver security and opportunity for working people. This spending is accompanied by significant reform. A strong economy requires sound public finances.
As part of that, the Spending Review makes the difficult decisions to:. The Spending Review period covers the four years from to inclusive.
This is the period during which the government is taking the decisions needed to return the public finances to surplus. Resource DEL is therefore set to An exception is made for those departments whose overall budgets are protected. Their Resource DEL is set to Capital budgets for every department are set to As set out in paragraph 1. Overall Resource DEL will fall by 0. The average rate of reduction over the preceding 5 years was 2.
The government has chosen to prioritise its day to day spending on national security and key public services while investing more for the long term in capital infrastructure. It shows how the government is funding the unprecedented long-term capital plans set out at Spending Round The government has protected its core priorities from the spending reductions required to fix the public finances. The decisions taken in this Spending Review will continue to protect the poorest and most vulnerable in society.
As shown in Chart 1. The progressivity of government spending is determined both by how the money is spent, and by how it is raised. Government reforms since , including increases in the income tax personal allowance as well as action on tax avoidance and changes to pensions tax relief, have resulted in the richest households paying a greater share of the taxes paid by households than they were paying in The chart shows that:.
The government has undertaken a comprehensive programme of engagement to consult on the major spending challenges facing the country. The first duty of government is to ensure the economic and national security of the country and its people. The investment decisions the government is making means the UK will continue to be protected with a cutting-edge military, strong domestic security, robust cyber defences and a truly global reach. The UK is the only country to meet both of these commitments, consolidating its leading role in shaping a more stable and secure world.
Over the last Parliament, the government invested in new defence capabilities while bringing the defence budget under control and successfully drawing down from operations in Afghanistan. F35 aircraft will be purchased sooner than planned, so that by Britain will have 1 of its 2 new aircraft carriers available at all times to operate anywhere in the world, capable of deploying with 24 F35 jets on board.
The government will buy 9 Maritime Patrol Aircraft to protect the nuclear deterrent and develop plans for a new general purpose frigate for the Navy, as part of a national shipbuilding strategy to be published in The Single Intelligence Account SIA will also invest in a bigger and more capable global network and enhance its capability to fuse intelligence with the armed forces to disrupt threats and take decisive action in the most hostile operating environments worldwide.
The UK, like other countries, faces a clear terrorist threat. This spending has been reviewed and tested within the SDSR to identify efficiencies for reinvestment and to ensure it reflects our highest counter terrorism priorities. Together, this will mean:. The National Cyber Security Programme will build on the successes of the last Parliament and expand in scope and ambition.
The government will create a new National Cyber Centre to be a unified source of advice and support for the country and will continue its investment in the offensive cyber programme to ensure the UK has cutting edge capabilities in this new domain of warfare. All of the departments and organisations involved in defence and security will achieve more within their budgets and deliver significant efficiencies.
All of these savings will be reinvested into capabilities to protect our national security. The government will ensure its buying decisions support defence exports where possible and will establish a dedicated team to support the negotiation and delivery of government-to-government defence and security deals. To further support innovation the government will dedicate 1. Police reform is working. This will provide funding to maintain overall police force budgets at current cash levels.
The government will allocate additional transformational funding to those forces which have strong proposals to support efficiency and reform and to help transition to new funding arrangements in future. This funding will also allow forces to adapt to changing crime threats and to train more firearms officers to ensure the country extends its capability to protect its citizens from terrorist threats.
The government will offer PCCs greater flexibility in their local funding decisions by rewarding those areas which have historically kept council tax low. The government is taking steps to enable police officers to spend more time fighting crime. The government will fund new digital and investigative capabilities for the National Crime Agency, transforming it into a world-leading law enforcement agency tackling cyber-crime, child sexual exploitation and the distribution of criminal finances.
The government is committed to spending 0. The government has published a cross-government ODA strategy, which outlines its new approach to UK aid spending. The strategy is underpinned by a very clear guiding principle: In line with that principle, the government will shape its ODA spending according to four strategic objectives: The government will ensure that all ODA spend is good value for money. The government will spend 0. The government will use ODA to promote economic reform in the developing world.
This will open up global markets and safeguard British citizens overseas. The government will continue to invest in English language training for young people around the world. To help strengthen the governance and prosperity of developing countries and build strong relationships with global leaders of the future, the government will fund 2, scholarships per year to study in the UK. To take advantage of trade and investment opportunities created by increasing global prosperity the government will refocus UK Trade and Investment UKTI to enable it to become a world-class export and investment promotion agency.
The government will also make it easier for those coming to do business and visit the UK. The government will trial a 2 year visa for Chinese visitors from January with plans to extend this to a 10 year visa.
The government will continue to push for a strong global climate change agreement in Paris this December, to keep the goal of limiting global warming to 2 degrees above pre-industrial levels firmly within reach.
The government will double its domestic energy innovation programme. In line with this, the UK will continue to play a leading role in international research efforts to reduce the costs of low carbon energy, working with other countries to strengthen international collaboration and transparency in clean energy research, development and demonstration.
A fully funded NHS is only possible with a strong economy and strong public finances. The Spending Review announces the biggest ever investment in the healthcare system to ensure high quality and sustainable care for families across the country 7 days a week. The Spending Review also puts more investment into social care and devolves greater power to local areas to make decisions about their health and social care services to drive forward an ambitious plan to integrate health and social care by By the NHS will be funded to provide:.
This investment will result in faster diagnosis, more effective treatment and greater choice of services, and provide greater funding for new clinical strategies such as cancer and mental health, including:. The Spending Review reforms the funding system for health students by replacing grants with student loans and abolishing the cap on the number of student places for nursing, midwifery and allied health subjects.
The current grant system means that there is a cap on student nurses and over half of all applicants to nursing courses are turned away. This reform will enable universities to provide up to 10, additional nursing and other health professional training places this Parliament.
This will ensure that there are enough nurses for the NHS while cutting the current reliance on expensive agency staff. The government will work with key stakeholders to implement the reforms. This facilitates partnerships between industry and the NHS to make healthcare more effective and efficient by testing combinations of new digital technologies and innovations in NHS services. The Test Bed programme will fund a testing site in every region.
This will come through improvements to quality of care and prevention, staff productivity and better procurement. The government will make savings in local authority public health spending. The ringfence on public health spending will be maintained in and Key national services will continue to be mandated, and the government will look to devolve greater powers so that local authorities can take preventative action.
The government will take a national lead in tackling obesity as the leading cause of preventable ill-health, with a specific focus on protecting the health of our children. Details will be set out in a Childhood Obesity strategy in This will take account of what the evidence says is needed. In addition, the government wants to improve links between health services and employment support, recognising timely access to health treatments can help individuals return to work quicker.
To further integrate services and help people back into work, where it has been agreed as part of a devolution deal, local areas will co-design employment support for harder-to-help claimants. The government will also publish a White Paper in that will set out reforms to improve support for people with health conditions and disabilities, including exploring the roles of employers, to further reduce the disability employment gap and promote integration across health and employment.
The Spending Review creates a social care precept to give local authorities who are responsible for social care the ability to raise new funding to spend exclusively on adult social care. Taken together, the new precept and additional local government Better Care Fund contribution mean local government has access to the funding it needs to increase social care spending in real terms by the end of the Parliament.
This will support councils to continue to focus on core services and to increase the prices they pay for care, including to cover the costs of the National Living Wage, which is expected to benefit up to , care workers. The government will also continue to improve care for older and disabled people and support for their carers. The Care Act reforms introduced in April focus on wellbeing, prevention and delaying the need for social care.
This is expected to prevent 8, people from needing to go into a care home in The government remains committed to introducing the Dilnot reforms to social care, with funding provided in to cover the costs of local authorities preparing for these changes.
The cap on reasonable care costs and extension of means tested support will then be introduced and funded from April The deferred payments scheme already means that no one will be forced to sell their home in their lifetime to pay for care. Locally led transformation of health and social care delivery has the potential to improve services for patients and unlock efficiencies. Spending Round established the Better Care Fund which has driven the integration of funding for health and social care and enabled services to be commissioned together for the first time.
The Better Care Fund has set the foundation, but the government wants to further, faster to deliver joined up care. The Spending Review sets out an ambitious plan so that by health and social care are integrated across the country. Every part of the country must have a plan for this in , implemented by The government will not impose how the NHS and local government deliver this. The ways local areas integrate will be different, and some parts of the country are already demonstrating different approaches, which reflect models the government supports, including:.
The government is moving Britain to a higher wage, lower tax, lower welfare society. At the Summer Budget, the government announced the introduction of the National Living Wage NLW , an increase in the income tax personal allowance and welfare reform. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement sets out the next stage in these reforms. This is the largest annual increase in a minimum wage rate across any G7 country since , in cash and real terms.
The government is determined to support those in work by continuing to reduce taxes. As a result of these changes, 29 million people will benefit and , will be taken out of income tax altogether. However, despite progress during the last Parliament there is still more to do. Welfare expenditure remains disproportionately high: The Summer Budget took important steps to move Britain towards a higher wage, lower tax, lower welfare society.
And further welfare reform was introduced to bring down the welfare bill. So alongside lower borrowing and increased investment in capital, the government can afford to give families longer to adjust to the transition to a higher wage, lower tax, lower welfare society. Merging 6 benefits into 1, Universal Credit marks a turning point towards a system where work, and working more, will always pay.
The changes to Universal Credit announced at Summer Budget will go ahead as planned from , and as previously announced, those transferred by DWP from tax credits to Universal Credit will receive transitional protection. This Spending Review and Autumn Statement takes further steps to ensure fairness between those receiving Housing Benefit and those paying for the system. Additional Discretionary Housing Payment funding will be made available to local authorities to protect the most vulnerable including those in supported accommodation.
As a result of all these reforms, Britain is moving towards a higher wage, lower tax, lower welfare society. Significant progress has been made: As the numbers claiming unemployment benefits come down, spending on employment programmes can also fall.
But at the same time, there is more to do to ensure that as many people as possible can benefit from the growing economy and higher wages. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement announces further measures to support people into work:. In the last year, the number of disabled people in employment has risen by 70, to over 3. Universal Credit will provide greater up-front support for claimants with disabilities and health conditions from the start of their claim and enable them to be referred to specialist support from day 1 where appropriate.
To support this the Spending Review announces a real terms increase in funding to help people with disabilities and health conditions to get work and remain in work.
In addition to these measures the government wants to improve links between health services and employment support, recognising timely access to health treatments can help individuals return to work quicker.
The government will publish a White Paper in the New Year that will set out reforms to improve support for people with health conditions and disabilities, including exploring the roles of employers, to further reduce the disability employment gap and promote integration across health and employment.
The government guarantees that older people are able to live with dignity and security in retirement. That is why, in April , the basic State Pension will once again be increased by the triple lock. The government is also simplifying the State Pension and providing more support for the poorest pensioners.
Those reaching pensionable age before the reforms are introduced will receive their State Pension in line with the current rules. Support will continue to be focused on the poorest pensioners through the Guarantee Credit.
At the same time, by adjusting the Savings Credit threshold, the Pension Credit awards for those currently receiving Savings Credit will be frozen where income is unchanged.
The government received several hundred responses to that consultation, and is considering the options for reform carefully. The government will publish its response at Budget Opt outs from automatic enrolment have been low and as a result, the number of people who are saving for their retirement is at its highest point since Instead of increases taking place in October, they will now occur in April of the following year.
The government is now inviting administering authorities to come forward with their proposals for new pooled structures in line with the guidance to significantly reduce costs while maintaining overall investment performance, with the wider ambition of matching the infrastructure investment levels of the top global pension funds. This will be replaced from April with a new cheaper domestic energy efficiency supplier obligation which will run for 5 years.
The government has consulted on changes to the Renewables Obligation and Feed in Tariffs schemes and will shortly publish a response to the consultations, detailing how to implement cost control on these schemes.
Figures may not sum due to rounding. More competition in energy retail markets could also significantly lower bills for both households and small businesses. The government is determined to crack down on the fraud and claims culture in motor insurance. Further donations and recipients will be announced at Budget The fund will run over the course of this Parliament, or until the UK can apply a zero rate.
This Spending Review prioritises housing by doubling the housing budget from It sets out the most ambitious plan since the s to build homes that support working people in their aim to buy their own home. In the last Parliament, the government took significant steps to support housing supply and low cost home ownership.
The Chancellor set out in the Productivity Plan that there remains more to do, particularly to re-focus support for housing towards low cost home ownership for first time buyers.
The scale of this programme of house building will require all sectors to play a role in delivery. As a result, the government will remove constraints that prevent private sector organisations from participating in delivery of these programmes, including the constraints to bidding for government funding.
This can be used in conjunction with the new Help to Buy: ISA launching on 1 December. First time buyers that save in a Help to Buy: The higher rates will be 3 percentage points above the current SDLT rates.
The tax receipts will help towards doubling the affordable housing budget. This will help first time buyers. The government remains committed to improving the transparency of mortgage fees and making it easier for borrowers to choose the best mortgage deals. It welcomes the significant step by the industry today in committing to several important actions including to standardise the presentation and definition of mortgage fees.
These are the key recommendations from the joint report published today by Which? The government remains committed to a competitive tax system with lower rates and high allowances delivering lower taxes for businesses and individuals. But the tax system also needs to be fair. The government will therefore continue to address imbalances in the system where some individuals and businesses benefit disproportionately from certain rules — and will also continue to tackle avoidance, evasion, non-compliance and tax planning.
To ensure the tax-advantaged venture capital schemes continue to provide effective and sustainable support to small and growing businesses, the government will amend the eligibility criteria of the schemes to exclude all energy generation activities.
The government will also continue to explore options to introduce increased flexibility for replacement capital within the schemes. To reduce opportunities for income to be converted to capital to gain a tax advantage, the government will shortly publish a consultation on the company distributions rules, and will amend the Transactions in Securities rules and introduce a Targeted Anti-Avoidance Rule.
The government is aware of tax planning around the intangible fixed assets regime used to obtain more generous corporation tax relief than is intended by the legislation. It will therefore amend the regime to stop arrangements that use partnerships to obtain relief that was not intended.
The government will also amend legislation to counter two types of avoidance involving capital allowances and leasing, which involve businesses artificially increasing the value of their capital allowances or lowering the amount of tax which they pay.
Because the government is taking the necessary steps to put the public finances in order, it can make the long term investment needed to build a prosperous nation. This means investing in education from childcare to college. It means transport and infrastructure that compares with the best in the world.
It means promoting a dynamic economy and creating the conditions for British businesses to succeed. Together, these will drive productivity, and improve prosperity for working people. The government is also working closely with businesses, particularly the Productivity Leadership Group chaired by Sir Charlie Mayfield and an investment industry group led by the Investment Association, to identify steps the private sector can take to incentivise long term investment and raise productivity.
The government encourages all stakeholders, including shareholders and company boards, to engage with these issues and is exploring specific steps that could help. The government will focus on improving standards in education, by reforming how funding is allocated to make it fairer and improving the quality of education providers.
This will help to tackle the long standing productivity gap with our major competitors. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement also delivers support for working families, continuing free school meals for all infants. This will be delivered alongside the introduction of a national early years funding formula and other reforms, to ensure funding is fairly allocated. The pupil premium will also be protected at current rates. This will end the unfair system where a child from a disadvantaged background in one school attracts half as much funding as a child in identical circumstances in another school, simply because of where they live.
This reform will give schools more certainty over future budgets, empowering head teachers to take decisions for the long term. The government will launch a detailed consultation in and implement the new formulae from There will be a transitional period to help smooth the implementation of the new formula.
The government is also investing in new school places for children with special educational needs and disabilities. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement announces a cash terms protection of the current national base rate per student for 16 to 19 year olds in school sixth forms, sixth form colleges and further education colleges in England for the rest of the Parliament.
They will have the option of joining a Multi Academy Trust if they choose to, which will help drive up standards and improve efficiency of education by enabling further collaboration between schools and Sixth Form Colleges. Apprenticeships are now the cornerstone of the skills system and 3 million apprenticeships will have started by By government spending on apprenticeships, including income from the new apprenticeship levy, will be double the level of spending in in cash terms.
The apprenticeship levy on larger employers announced in the Summer Budget will be introduced in April It will be set at a rate of 0. The levy will put control of apprenticeship funding in the hands of employers and will encourage employers to invest in their apprentices and take on more. Employers in England who pay the levy and are committed to apprenticeship training will be able to get out more than they pay into the levy, through a top-up to their digital accounts.
All employers who do not pay the levy will be able to access government support for apprenticeships. As well as increasing the numbers of apprentices the government will ensure quality is increased too. The government will establish a new employer-led body to set apprenticeship standards and ensure quality. The body will be independent of government and will also advise on the level of levy funding each apprenticeship should receive. Funding caps will be significantly higher for programmes which have high costs and are of high quality.
Colleges currently receive approximately a third of apprenticeship spending. Savings will be made from non-participation budgets and efficiencies will be delivered through locally-led Area Reviews, which will be supported with additional government funding and will ensure the further education sector is financially resilient and meets local economic needs.
This will enable around 1. The government will create 5 National Colleges and will support a new network of Institutes of Technology across the country. This will benefit an estimated 40, students a year. The government will also consult on introducing maintenance loans for people who attend specialist, higher-level providers, including National Colleges. Higher education is a major success story of the UK economy with more universities in the world rankings than any country outside the US.
Universities have higher income today than in International students are integral to the success of UK universities and the economy. Current English language requirements will be maintained. Financial support for higher education will be increased substantially to enable people to study for a degree. The government will lift the age cap on new loans to postgraduates from so they are available to all those under Following a sharp decline in part-time students since , the government will introduce new part-time maintenance loans from to support the cost of living while studying.
The government expects , part-time students could benefit each year by the end of the Parliament. For all STEM subjects, tuition loans will be extended to students wishing to do a second degree from Widening the range of higher education providers stimulates competition, increases choice for students and addresses skills gaps. Support will be provided to secure launch funding to create a new university in Hereford focused on engineering in subject to relevant approvals.
The government will continue to prioritise investment in science to ensure the UK remains a world class centre of research. This will take the lead in shaping and driving a strategic approach to science funding, ensuring a focus on the big challenges and opportunities for UK research.
The government will also look to integrate Innovate UK into Research UK in order to strengthen collaboration between the research base and the commercialisation of discoveries in the business community.
Innovate UK will retain its clear business focus and separate funding stream. The government will also take forward a review of the Research Excellence Framework in order to examine how to simplify and strengthen funding on the basis of excellence, and will set out further details shortly. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement delivers the high-quality infrastructure needed to build and sustain a more productive economy. Investment in infrastructure will deliver growth today as projects are built, and growth tomorrow as the benefits are felt.
The government is making the biggest investment in transport infrastructure in generations. The government is also driving forward with major improvements to transport in the Northern Powerhouse. The Roads Investment Strategy signals the biggest investments in roads since the s. Future roads investment will be underpinned by a new Roads Fund paid for directly from the revenues of Vehicle Excise Duty from An ambitious second Roads Investment Strategy will be published before the end of this Parliament setting out how the Roads Fund will be invested.
The government will deliver on commitments to freeze regulated rail fares at no more than inflation RPI for the entire Parliament, and will go even further with action to ensure that rail passengers have access to compensation when trains are more than a few minutes late.
This could include providing development funding for projects such as Crossrail 2 and proposals emerging from the Northern Transport Strategy, following advice from the NIC at Budget The government will prioritise energy security, whilst making reforms to meet our climate goals at lower cost. The government is doubling spend on energy innovation, to boost energy security and bring down the costs of decarbonisation.
This will include a competition to identify the best value small modular reactor design for the UK. Detailed plans for the competition will be brought forward early next year.
The government will provide an exemption for Energy Intensive Industries, including the steel industry, from the policy costs of the Renewables Obligation and Feed-in Tariffs, to ensure that they have long-term certainty and remain competitive. By the end of the Parliament the government expects to have incentivised enough additional renewable heat to warm the equivalent of over , homes.
The government will also continue to make the most of domestic resources and manage our energy legacy safely and responsibly. The government is retaining the diesel supplement in company car tax until , when EU -wide testing procedures will ensure new diesel cars meet air quality standards even under strict real world driving conditions. The government is committed to supporting the arts and our world class national museums and galleries which make a rich contribution to society and our economy.
The government will ensure that these sectors have the same amount of government funding in cash terms in as they do today. To encourage museums and galleries to develop creative new exhibitions and display their collections for a wide audience, the government will explore with the sector the case for introducing a new tax relief for museums and galleries. The government also invites the British Library to develop a business case for a print collections management hub in Boston Spa, Wetherby.
Businesses are the lifeblood of the economy, and the government is determined to create the conditions for UK companies to succeed at home and abroad.
The UK has risen to be the sixth best place to do business in the world, up from tenth in , and the second best in Europe, 72 and is the best country in the EU to start a business. Since the first quarter of , the private sector has created 2. Businesses will also benefit from the investment the government is making across schools, further education and higher education, as well as the apprenticeship levy which will increase skills and puts control of funding in the hands of employers.
Reforms since have also made the UK more competitive and attractive to inward investors. This will enhance direct support to business and develop the private sector market. This is part of a broader government effort to boost exports, including to build the domestic environment for firms and develop global trade relations. Over the last two years the number of small businesses employing someone other than the owner has grown by , At the Spending Review and Autumn Statement small businesses will continue to receive support for apprentices.
The government will meet its commitment to 75, Start-Up Loans by the end of this Parliament. The review will be fiscally neutral and will report at Budget Open, competitive markets are crucial to a dynamic economy. The UK has a world-leading competition regime, but many markets could work better for households and businesses. Strong competition encourages innovation and efficiency and a better deal for customers.
Overly restrictive regulation can also put the brakes on the competitive process and favour incumbent firms and established business models. These CRAs will receive SME credit information from designated banks and provide equal access to this information to all finance providers. This is a significant milestone in a major structural reform that will promote competition in the SME credit market.
Competition between broadband providers supports the delivery of the fast and reliable broadband a modern, productive economy needs. Innovative approaches to supporting the market will help deliver ultrafast speeds to nearly all premises.
The government will explore setting up a new broadband investment fund, to support the growth of alternative network developers by providing greater access to finance. The fund would be supported by both public and private investors, and would be managed by the private sector on a commercial basis. The government is fundamentally changing the way the country is run, through nothing less than a devolution revolution.
Local leaders will have radical new powers to take responsibility for driving local growth. Strong progress has been made. There were over a million more private sector jobs 80 and over half a million more businesses 81 in England outside London and the South East in than in The government is also devolving unprecedented powers to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The conclusion last week of the latest phase of political talks in Northern Ireland offers the opportunity for a fresh start for devolved government. The government is supporting the Northern Ireland Executive with a substantial package of new funding and financial flexibility.
The Spending Review delivers significant real-terms increases to Northern Ireland Executive capital budgets. The government remains committed to the devolution of corporation tax powers to the Northern Ireland Assembly, subject to the Northern Ireland Executive demonstrating that its finances have been put on a sustainable footing and that the range of commitments entered into in the Stormont House Agreement have been met.
The Northern Ireland parties have now indicated that they wish to pursue the implementation of a new Northern Ireland rate of The Scotland Bill, containing significant tax and spending powers, has completed its House of Commons stages and is on track to receive Royal Assent in early Discussions on the accompanying Fiscal Framework are ongoing, with the Joint Exchequer Committee having met 4 times since May. The Scotland Bill and the Fiscal Framework will mean the Scottish Parliament will become one of the most powerful devolved legislatures in the world.
The government is committed to implementing the Smith Commission Agreement in full. The Spending Review delivers significant real-terms increases to Scottish Government capital budgets. Implementation of the City Deal for Glasgow and the Clyde Valley is now well underway and headline proposals have been received from local partners for Aberdeen and Inverness.
This will support the collection going on tour, aas well as refurbishment of the Grade A listed museum in Glasgow. The funding floor will therefore be reset at the next Spending Review.
The government will legislate to remove the requirement for the Welsh Assembly to hold a referendum in order to implement the Welsh Rates of Income Tax, to reflect the change in the debate in Wales. The Spending Review delivers significant real-terms increases to Welsh Government capital budgets. The Spending Review announces an in principle commitment to contribute to an infrastructure fund for the Cardiff region. The devolution revolution sets out a new deal for local government. It requires local authorities to make efficiency savings, but in return offers them unprecedented new levers of power to generate growth for their area.
The government will allow local government to keep the rates they collect from business, give councils the power to cut business rates to boost growth, and give elected city-wide mayors the power to levy a business rates premium for local infrastructure projects — with the support of local business.
The Uniform Business Rate will be abolished and any local area will be able to cut business rates as much as they like, to win new jobs and generate wealth.
Fixing the current broken system of financing local government will strengthen incentives to boost growth, help attract business and create jobs. Elected city-wide mayors will be able to add a premium to business rates to pay for new infrastructure, provided they have the support of the local business community through a majority of business members of their Local Enterprise Partnership. The consultation will take into account the main resources currently available to councils, including council tax and business rates.
As part of these reforms, the main local government grant will be phased out and additional responsibilities devolved to local authorities, empowering them to drive local economic growth and support their local community. The government will consult on these and other additional responsibilities in Like other unprotected areas of spending, local government will need to make a contribution to fiscal consolidation to ensure that the country is able to live within its means.
But while the main grant to local government will be phased out, this currently represents less than a quarter of local government total resources. This is less than the average annual reductions of 2. The Spending Review and Autumn Statement announces a number of measures to help local authorities, with responsibility for adult social care, meet the needs of their population:.
The government is supporting growth and efficiency by enabling the release of public sector assets for more productive use. Instead of holding assets that could be made surplus, councils will be able to sell them and reinvest in their services that allow them to deliver more for less — for example in home improvements that can help keep older people from needing to go to hospital. The flexibility to use asset receipts for reform projects will be subject to a number of conditions, including limits on the years in which the flexibility will be offered and the qualifying criteria for reform projects.
The government will also strengthen the existing legislation around Right to Contest to allow local communities to challenge the use of land and property that is in use by local authorities, not just property that is empty or under-used, where these assets could be made surplus and put to better use. Building on the historic settlement with Greater Manchester, this year further devolution agreements have been reached with civic leaders in the Sheffield City Region, the North East, Tees Valley, Liverpool City Region and the West Midlands, giving local areas control over major budgets and responsibilities and creating directly elected mayors.
The government will work towards further devolution deals with other major city regions. The government is making further progress on devolving powers to Greater Manchester, demonstrating that the first devolution deal is just the start of a closer dialogue between cities and government. This includes supporting the Greater Manchester Combined Authority to develop and implement an integrated approach to preventative services for children and giving the Greater Manchester Mayor the power to introduce a Community Infrastructure Levy.
For Britain to fulfil its potential every part of the country must be enabled to achieve its potential. The government is bringing multiple sources of funding together into one clear, single fund. As a result, the government can confirm the indicative Local Growth Fund allocations that were made through Growth Deals, and that Local Enterprise Partnerships will continue to receive core funding from government, matched by local areas.
This is a major step forward in giving local areas greater control over public spending — the Local Growth Fund is more than double the combined size of the Regional Growth Fund, Growing Places Fund and City Deals in the last Parliament.
For products manufactured using well-characterized cell lines, the European Medicines Agency EMA requires a minimum evaluation of two orthogonal steps with a retrovirus and a parvovirus 7. Based on the outcome of that assessment, evaluation of additional steps may be needed 1.
For submissions to regulatory authorities other than the US Food and Drug Administration FDA , manufacturers must conduct duplicate experiments to estimate reproducibility of viral clearance capabilities of their processes.
As product development proceeds toward product licensure, processing parameter ranges are established. For parameters that might affect viral clearance, robustness data should be generated to verify that viral clearance performance is not adversely affected throughout processing ranges. In addition, manufacturers should evaluate the efficacy of chromatography sanitization procedures to demonstrate that if an adventitious virus were introduced into a chromatography step, the column sanitization and regeneration procedures would prevent its carryover to subsequent runs.
In addition, manufacturers must perform clearance studies with aged resins to confirm that viral clearance performance of each chromatography step does not deteriorate with extended resin use.
Finally, if an abbreviated virus panel is used for early stage studies, that panel must be extended to show that viruses with varying characteristics can be cleared.
Clearance Methods When developing a manufacturing process for a biopharmaceutical, the goal is to include unit operations that lead to good yields of highly purified protein product. Including steps that inactivate or remove viruses — made of proteins themselves — often involves an intricate balancing act: Potential viral contaminants must be cleared without jeopardizing the yield or purity of a product. When possible, a manufacturing process should include unit operations that are specifically dedicated to virus inactivation or removal.
For example, holding a process intermediate at a low pH e. Such steps can be shown to be robust; that is, they are effective over a range of varying conditions, such as the use of different buffers, pH levels, temperatures, concentrations, and exposure times.
Nonenveloped viruses are much more difficult to inactivate, and, often, conditions that will inactivate them are incompatible with a protein product. Reduction of such viruses typically depends on a removal step. Many manufacturing processes include virus- reduction filters because they are often transparent to a process, yet remove all viruses above a given size.
Most modern manufacturing processes include one or more chromatography unit operations. Although those steps are optimized to purify a protein, often they also provide some level of viral reduction. Many chromatography steps provide two to three logs of virus removal, but some manufacturers have optimized steps e.
However, chromatography is not a robust viral clearance method, because variations in pH, ionic strength, and other parameters can affect its viral clearance ability. A Deeper Look at the Methods To successfully mitigate risk, process engineers need a good understanding of the methods designed to either inactivate or remove viral contaminants Table 1.
Common methodologies that contribute to virus inactivation or removal in biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Direct exposure of process intermediate to pH extremes has been used for viral clearance in biopharmaceutical manufacturing.
For example, studies have proven that low pH treatment e. High pH treatment using a sodium hydroxide solution is used to sanitize many chromatography columns, which can be effective against both enveloped and nonenveloped viruses 9 — In general, exposure to pH extremes during manufacture of MAbs, plasma-derived products, products derived from tissue, recombinant proteins RPs , and vaccines can provide effective, robust viral reduction e.
Treatment of plasma-derived products with 0. That disruption prevents a virus from binding to or infecting cells, thus rendering it inactive 13 — It is important to note that this process does not inactivate nonenveloped viruses. Heat treatment, both wet e. This method typically causes three-dimensional changes in the structure of viral proteins, rendering viruses nonfunctional or inactive.
Although heat treatment can be effective against enveloped and nonenveloped viruses, some resistant, nonenveloped viruses e. High-heat treatment can change the structure of a protein product, leading to inactivation, reduced efficacy, or even immunogenicity and toxicity. Note that with dry heat treatment, the moisture content of a lyophilized cake might affect the efficacy of viral inactivation, making moisture control a critical parameter High-temperature short-time HTST treatment is an established method used in the food industry.
It involves rapidly heating select materials to a predetermined temperature for a specified short time. This technique is gradually becoming an integral part of viral inactivation methodologies in the biopharmaceutical industry, particularly as an upstream risk-mitigation treatment for cell culture media 22 — HTST is thought to inactivate viral contaminants by denaturing proteins in the viral capsid When performed at a sufficiently high temperature, this technique provides effective inactivation of resistant nonenveloped viruses e.
A number of studies have further delineated the susceptibility of the parvovirus MMV which is known to have contaminated mammalian cell manufacturing facilities to heat by exposing virus-spiked cell culture media to a broad range of temperatures for various exposure times. Chromatography separates mixtures based on differences among the affinities of their components for a chromatographic resin matrix.
Generally, this process is used to separate closely related molecules. As a unit operation, it is typically designed for purifying a protein product. Yet often, enveloped and nonenveloped viruses also can be separated from a product. Viral clearance depends on the physicochemical and biochemical properties of an individual virus.
Removal of one type of virus does not necessarily mean that all viruses will be removed. In addition, chromatography buffers can inactivate enveloped viruses, such as low-pH buffers and buffers containing components that act as detergents. For cases in which enveloped viruses are inactivated, quantitative polymerase chain reaction qPCR can be used to assess virus removal. Manufacturing processes for most biological products include chromatography operations. Most evaluations of viral clearance include assessment of at least one chromatography step.
Robustness studies can verify that a chromatography operation provides consistent clearance over specified parameter operating ranges 24 — Many manufacturers use membrane chromatography steps in their processes. Chromatography membranes have the advantage of being disposable, which eliminates the need for sanitization or aged resin studies 28 — Many purification processes for biopharmaceuticals use virus-reduction filtration as an integral part of an overall strategy for viral clearance in upstream an downstream applications 30 — Virus-reduction filters can provide robust and effective removal of large- and medium-sized viruses.
Such filters also can effectively remove very small viruses e. But removal of such viruses can depend on manufacturing process parameters. It has been effective in risk-mitigation strategies for raw materials and postpurification process intermediates.
Irradiation of bovine serum is useful for mitigating the risk of viral contamination due to the presence of contaminants in unprocessed bulk biologics e. However, this process must be strictly controlled to ensure consistent, reproducible, effective, and efficient virus inactivation. Ultraviolet-C UV-C uses low-dose radiation at nm to destroy viral nucleic acids while maintaining structural and functional integrity of manufactured proteins.
Resistant parvoviruses have been shown to be much more susceptible to inactivation by UV-C than even enveloped viruses 33 , Researchers are exploring the application of this technology for treating cell culture media used for recombinant protein production as a means for mitigating viral contamination risk. Making Viral Safety a Goal Achieving zero risk of viral contamination in biologic production is impossible.
A manufacturing process designed with viral safety as a goal will include specific robust virus inactivation and removal steps as well as purification unit operations that provide further viral reduction.