Imperial Cleaning

Freiburg: City of Vision

A small community took root again in synagogue Werderstrasse.

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The pedestrianized city center was intended in to be an experiment. Most citizens were always in favor of the idea, but some business groups opposed it. It was not until that the "experiment" concluded, when a consensus in favor of the pedestrian zone had clearly emerged. The streets were repaved, for the most part, with natural stone. Trees, fountains, seats, lamps and art objects were installed. Commercial elements, such as showcases and kiosks, which were common in pedestrian zones created in other cities during the '60s, were not wanted here.

The city paid very special attention to the repaving of the streets and squares. Kerbs and asphalt were removed from all streets, and natural stone paving - reddish quartzite, black basalt, granite, red porphyry, and pebbles from the river Rhein - were used almost without exception in the medieval city center.

Indeed, the floor of the city has been treated as the city's "carpet". It is a work of art, and exhibits fine craftsmanship. Geometric and flower designs, historic, cultural and business symbols, executed by traditional artisans working with the different colored stones, pebbles and mosaics emphasize the unique character of each street, stimulate a sense of history, and prompt fantasy and imagination. Institutions, commercial buildings and churches are invited to sponsor a pebble mosaic in the pavement at their entrance; a bakery may be identified by a pretzel, a pharmacy by a pestle and mortar, a cafe by a cup and saucer, a tailor by a pair of scissors.

In this way, the business reaches out into the street and extends its jurisdiction into what, in other cities, is a no-man's land. The pavement becomes personalized. These pavement designs demonstrate that the Freiburgers value artistic craftsmanship, and that imagination, patience, humor, and the ability to create something that will last for generations are qualities that are highly valued.

The sense of civic pride and responsibility are very strong in Freiburg. During the pedestrianization process, Freiburg took the opportunity to reopen the "Bächle", the little streams that run off the mountains through the streets of the old city.

These streams had provided the drainage system dating from the fourteenth century, but had been covered up to make the streets accessible for vehicles.

On hot days these tiny rivulets are very refreshing: The pedestrian zone has proved immensely popular, and economically very healthy. Indeed, the pedestrian streets are so successful that some shopkeepers and residents on streets with traffic also demand to become traffic free. Closing the center of the city to private vehicles made public transportation by tramway and bus much more attractive.

The tramway system runs through the main shopping streets and, without the delays caused by private vehicles, the trams are able to run much more efficiently. As a result of pedestrianization, therefore, more people began using public transportation because it could take them quickly and comfortably into, and across the city center. As a result of this increased use, it became possible to further improve the service and extend the routes.

The goal is to reduce automobile traffic by increasing use of the more healthy and sustainable modes of transportation, walking, biking and public transit.

While it is recognized that use of the automobile is necessary in some circumstances, it is carefully regulated in an environmentally and urban-friendly manner. Transportation planners make use of five mechanisms to encourage healthy and sustainable transportation modes: Extension of the public transportation network; 2. Channeling individual motorized vehicle traffic; 4. Parking space management; and 5. Early plans had proposed moving public transportation into tunnels beneath the pedestrian streets.

These plans were abandoned for cost reasons, and it is now thought that the visibility of trams and busses on the main street also keeps public transportation more attractive. They are relatively noiseless, and limited to a maximum speed of 25 kilometers per hour. In a new philosophy for local public transportation was developed.

An "urban environmental protection ticket" was introduced. When the number of passengers rose it became possible for new streetcar lines to be opened and new equipment to be installed. In , the streetcar Strassenbahn extends 19 miles 30 km from Kaiser Joseph Strasse at the heart of the pedestrian zone to eight different destinations in surrounding neighborhoods. They provide a regular service every 7.

An additional four new lines are proposed to provide greater interconnectivity. The regional light rail service runs every 30 minutes from the city center to surrounding towns.

This connects to the national train system and bus system at the main train station. Freiburg's public transportation company joined with all the public transportation companies in the region to form a single transportation company.

It is now possible to purchase a monthly ticket for unlimited use on all regional busses and trams, including trains and busses of the national system "Bundesbahn".

This has made it as easy to travel by public transportation to the surrounding mountains and lakes of the Black Forest as it is to go shopping. Fifty-six bus routes and eight railway lines are included in the system.

The ticket is transferable, and can be used by several passengers simultaneously. This ticket is called the "Regional environmental protection ticket" or the "Green ticket", and is intended to encourage as many people as possible to leave the car at home and travel by the much more ecological public transportation system.

It was decided in Freiburg that bicycles would be too disruptive to pedestrians within the main pedestrian areas. Bicyclists are permitted to ride on some pedestrian streets, but not others, and sometimes they are only permitted in one direction.

Within the pedestrian zone, there are 50 bike parking lots. Bicycle parking is provided at primary, elementary and high schools as well as at all university buildings.

Safe bike parking places are provided in the surrounding neighborhoods at streetcar, local railway and bus stops, often with protective roofs. At the main railway station, a large three story bicycle station has been constructed, providing bike parking, maintenance and rental services.

Throughout Freiburg, it was estimated in that 60, bike parking spaces were available. An extensive network kilometers of bicycle paths has been created. At first, paths to surrounding villages were intended for both bicyclists and pedestrians. It became clear that the speed of bicycles made these paths unsafe for pedestrians, to now, wherever possible, separate paths have been created for both. These routes run along the banks of the river Dreisam, around fields, through woods, and beside roads.

Within the city, separate bike paths are often created next to sidewalks, protected from traffic by planting strips where space allows. Bicycle lanes have also been created on the road, clearly marked with solid white lines and bike symbols. Use of the automobile has been made less attractive by parking space management. Neighborhoods where residents are required to obtain parking permits are being extended. Many streets have been traffic calmed by removing some parking areas to make way for trees and plants, seating areas, and outdoor restaurants.

In these streets, speed limit is reduced to walking speed, and only residents or delivery vehicles are permitted to park. Freiburg has one of the most extensive and successful farmers' markets in Europe, which takes place on the large Münsterplatz that encircles the cathedral.

At least half of the market, on the north side of the cathedral, consists of local farmers and gardeners selling their own produce.

While the market takes place every morning from 7: Around the edge of the Münsterplatz are many outdoor cafes, inns and restaurants which, from mid-morning on, provide light refreshment and traditional fare.

By noon during fine weather every table and chair is occupied. Many have been shopping, others come because this is the liveliest place to meet friends. The market has a very festive spirit, with its colorful umbrellas and overflowing baskets of fruit, flowers and vegetables.

For the Freiburg citizens, this is an important weekly social ritual, an opportunity not only to buy the best and freshest produce of the region, but more significantly, to meet friends and acquaintances.

Many people, including city officials, business people, university professors and students can regularly be found at the Saturday market. This farmers' market plays a very important role in Freiburg's social life. Celebration and festivity are cherished in Freiburg. Hardly a week goes by without some festival in the center of town or in one of the neighborhoods. The annual carnival celebration, "Fasnet" revives a centuries old tradition of masked and costumed performances in the streets.

Thirty-three fools' guilds take part in the celebrations, and there is a "Hemdglunker" procession, which leads to the storming of city hall. Many new festivals were introduced during the '70s: Street entertainers are welcomed in Freiburg.

Saturday afternoons are especially lively, when music of all kinds, from medieval and baroque music, classical Spanish guitar and Indian sitar music, to folk music from Ireland, America and Peru, jazz and rock music, as well as clowns, acrobats, and other performers fill the streets and squares of the old city. Spurred by research at the University, and a population eager to put into practice principles of ecology and sustainability, Freiburg has become a leader in innovative sustainable energy, with solar, wind and hydro-power industries, co-generation and district energy systems.

Water quality has long been a focus of planning, with extensive use of permeable ground surfaces rather than asphalt , bioswales, and green roofs. To encourage permeable ground surfaces, property owners are charged a stormwater fee according to the percentage of their land that is permeable. The two new urban neighborhoods, Rieselfeld and Vauban have been built using low energy construction and passive and active solar design methods, as well as a strong community participation process in the planning.

The population of Freiburg increased rapidly in the '90s, largely due to the migration from former East German States. Freiburg's response was to plan a complete new city quarter, called Rieselfeld, for a population of 12, on seventy-eight hectares at Freiburg's western edge.

The city wanted to ensure that this new neighborhood would be designed on the most advanced ecological principles. The land had originally been used as the municipal sewage farm, but was closed in when the sewage system was connected to a regional treatment system. At that time, the intention was to protect the landscape and ecology of the area. However, the need for housing was so great that the city decided to use one quarter of the area for the new neighborhood, and to maintain the rest as a nature conservancy area.

The city wanted to avoid the social problems often associated with large scale housing developments, and to ensure that they did not repeat the planning mistakes made in the adjacent district of Weingarten. Here, modern planning principles had been used in the construction of a predominantly social housing district of high-rise apartment blocks. The combination of poor planning principles, absence of urban texture, and ghettoization of lower income families had created a neighborhood with distinct social problems.

The city paid much attention to defining equitable and sustainable planning principles to form the basis for Rieselfeld. They invited experts in planning, social sciences, transportation, ecological planning, energy, housing, and other fields to advise them and to help shape the guidelines for the conceptual plan competition. Seven principles were considered of prime importance: In its architecture, and urban space design, the new neighborhood should be built to a human scale.

There should be a clear differentiation between public, semi-public and private spaces. Since the social stability of a district depends on residents identifying with their neighborhood, the neighborhood must have a good image, with its own unique and consistent character. From the beginning the neighborhood must have a balanced social structure. This means that while social housing is an important element, it must be balanced by market rate housing.

For the neighborhood to have it's own identity it must contain all the essential infrastructure. Shops, schools, kindergarten, health care and senior services, work places, restaurants, churches, sports and other facilities must all be included. It is of the highest priority to encourage use of public transportation; the new district must be connected to the city center and other parts of Freiburg by tramway and bus. Ecological principles must influence architectural design and urban design.

Buildings should make use of passive solar energy, solar collectors and photo-voltaics. It is important to develop a process of community participation in the planning and building designs for the new neighborhood. In a competition for the conceptual plan was held. The first prize winner, a planning firm from Freiburg, worked with the City of Freiburg to further refine the plan to reflect as closely as possible the city's planning principles.

The street layout is roughly orthogonal with the main street carrying the Strassenbahn connection to the city center running down the middle of the site. The main street contains most of the commercial activities, with a large supermarket at either end, and a diversity of smaller shops, cafes and restaurants between them.

It has wide sidewalks, separate bike lanes, vehicle lanes, and the Strassenbahn running down the middle along a green sward. While the emphasis is placed on public transit, walking and biking, the automobile has not been banned from Rieselfeld. Almost all apartment buildings and condos have underground parking; row houses and townhouses have parking in adjacent alleys. In these streets, traffic can go no faster than a pedestrian. There are no sidewalks because the whole width of the street must be shared by playing children, adults socializing, bikes and cars.

This requires all users to be mindful of others in the space. The Jewish cemetery in Schmieheim was established in the 17th century southwest of the town on the road to Wallburg. Extensive remedial work has restored the cemetery.

Relics of its building, ruined in , can still be found in the graveyard. Until the 19th century Schmieheim had more than Jewish inhabitants and a rabbi. He moved the rabbinate to Offenburg in The former synagogue in Schmieheim is now an apartment house. Emmendingen is located about 20 kilometers north of Freiburg. A small community was established here in , consisting mainly of Jewish families from the former Soviet Union.

The synagogue on Schlossplatz, ransacked in and then torn down, is now commemorated by a plaque. The two Jewish cemeteries have been preserved. The older burial ground , next to the Markgrafen school, was used in the 18th and 19th centuries. The new cemetery is directly adjacent to the municipal graveyard, the Bergfriedhof. The inviting design of the new synagogue on the corner of Nussmann- and Engelstrasse in Freiburg im Breisgau has attracted worshippers since it opened in The oak doors from the main entrance of the earlier synagogue at Werthmannplatz 1 - demolished in - have been installed in the new house of worship.

In Freiburg had been home so some 1, Jews. More than fell victim to the Nazis. In recent years the Jewish community in Freiburg has grown considerably due to the influx of families and individuals from the former Sovet Union.

The Jewish cemetery on the corner of Elsässer Strasse and Rosenbaumweg, opened in and still used today, bears testimony to the importance of the old community. For many centuries there were Jewish communities in Eichstetten, Ihringen and Breisach, all in the Kaiserstuhl area west of Freiburg.

Built in and practically obliterated in , the synagogue at Altweg 10 in Eichstetten is still delineated by its perimeter walls. The Jewish burial ground , dedicated in , is on Friedhofstrasse at the southern fringe of town. The synagogue in Ihringen also failed to survive.

Only the rabbinate at Bachenstrasse 15 and the building at Bachenstrasse 17, once used for ritual baths, still exists. The Jewish cemetery in the vineyards - on the path to Blankenhorn - was established in Since the Middle Ages, although with some interruptions, there has been a Jewish community in Breisach.

A memorial at the corner of Rheintorstrasse and "Klösterle" Street commemorates the synagogue devasted in In the former Jewish "Gemeindehaus" was restored as a memorial and cultural center.

Two of the old Jewish cemeteries remain: Müllheim and Sulzburg, situated about 30 kilometers southwest of Freiburg, still harbor numerous traces of Jewish history. Unfortunately the Müllheim synagogue , although spared destruction in , was torn down in Except a few stones pillars of the almemor podium, the keystone of the torah shrine brought to the Jewish cemetery on Schwarzwaldstrasse and thus preserved, the graveyard lacks other distinctive features.

Before the cemetery's dedication in the Jewish community's dead were buried in Sulzburg. The late-Baroque, semi-classical synagogue in Sulzburg , erected in , was restored between and thanks to a campaign launched by preservationists in early ; the project was ultimately sponsored by the State of Baden-Württemberg.

With the goal the restore the synagogue to its pre condition, magnificent interior paintings, particularly its starry, blue heavens on the vaulted ceiling, were recreated with loving care. The building is now dedicated to cultural endeavours. Sulzburg also has a beautifully sited Jewish cemetery dating to the 16th century. At the swiss border, opposite Basel, lies Lörrach , home to settlements of Jews from the 17th century to In the community was reborn, mostly due to the arrival of Russian Jewish families.

All that remains of the former Jewish presence are two cemeteries: The one on Schützenwaldweg , which had served the community beginning in , was maliciously ransacked in the s. Its gravestones were mostly discarded. The newer cemetery , immediately adjacent to the municipal graveyard, was established in and is still in use. For about years until their deportation in October , Jews lived in the Tiengen district of Waldshut-Tiengen , a town located at the Swiss border about midway between Basel and Lake Constance.

Besides several memorial plaques, only the former Jewish cemetery on what is now Feldbergstrasse recalls the town's Jewish history. The graveyard, levelled in and converted into an athletic field, was restored as a memorial after Here, about 15 kilometers from Koblenz, are the sites of two significant rural Swiss-Jewish communities.

In both localities excellently preserved synagogues, recently restored and still usable, bear testimony to Jewish history in the Surb valley. The large cemetery between Endingen and Lengnau is still in service, particularly as a final resting place for residents of the Israelite Old Age Home in Lengnau. Between Schaffhausen and Singen, two more Jewish communities are on the German side of the border, Randegg and Gailingen. The Jewish cemetery in Randegg , located directly at the border, is worth a visit; the key is at the customs office.

Randegg's synagogue was destroyed in A commemorative stone in a small park at Otto-Dix-Strasse next to the "Krone" inn marks the site. In the annals of Jewish history in southern Germany the town of Gailingen is unique. In the s it had more Jewish than Christian inhabitants about 1, each and a Jewish mayor. Leopold Guggenheim guided the fate of the entire community from to The social service facilities in Gailingen included several Israelite institution of trans-regional iomportance, in particular the Jewish hospital, built in today, an apartment building on Büsinger Strasse 6 , and the "Friedrichsheim" Senior Citizen Home which served elderly Jews until The building at Gottmadinger Strasse 1 is still an old-age home.

The cemetery , enlarged several times since its dedication in , became one of the largest Jewish burial grounds in Baden-Württemberg; it was reopened in The synagogue , however, fell victim to the raids. Today its site, a memorial park on Ramsener Strasse, bears memorial stones. Immediately next to it - in today's community building Bürgerhaus - was the Jewish school. It included apartments for the rabbi and religious instructor; the basement had a mikve. Überlingen and Constance feature significant reminders of the Jewish presence on the shores of Lake Constance.

During the Middle Ages a major community was located in Überlingen where in , in the course of a particularly cruel suppression of Jews, some to Jews were burnt to death in their synagogue. Jewish gravestones , displayed in the Städtische Heimatmuseum, the municipal museum at Krummebergstrasse 50, bear witness to this medieval community. One stone is dated In Constance the "Judenturm" Jew Tower , built in the 13th century as part of the city's fortification, was financed by Jewish families.

It reflects the importance of the town's Jewish community during the Middle Ages. The synagogue of the newly revived 19th-century community, located at Sigismundstrasse 19, was destroyed in A commercial building at the site has included a prayer room since The Jewish cemetery , consecrated in , is now part of the municipal cemetery at Wollmatinger Strasse; it was enlarged in and still serves the community. Two well-known Jewish communities are situated in Upper Swabia: Bad Buchau and Laupheim.

The Buchau community dates back to medieval times; in the 's its more than Jews lived in the socalled "Judengasse" Jew Alley and its side streets; through the centuries their religious life centered on several prayer rooms and synagogues. Built in and ruined in , the synagogue was deemed to be one of the most beautiful houses of Jewish worship.

Today only a memorial recalls its location at the corner of Hofgartenstrasse and Schussenrieder Strasse, now site of a park with a large weeping willow. The rabbinical office was next to the synagogue at what is today Hofgartenstrasse 4. On account of severe space constraints in the 18th century, a beautifully-located cemetery , established in , had to be covered twice so that the graves in the southeastern part of today's cemetery are now stacked three high.

The Einsteins were one of the old-established Jewish families in Buchau. A plaque honoring Prof. Albert Einstein, the world-renowned physicist, ist to be found on his family home at Hofgartenstrasse He was born nearby Ulm.

The Jewish history of Laupheim community dates back to the 18th century. Around some of the town's inhabitants were Jews. They lived on what is still called the "Judenberg" Jew Mountain. It was only after that Jewish families were allowed to settle elsewhere. In two towers added to the synagogue , built in near Jewish Mountain, made the building look more like a church.

It was ransacked in The cemetery on Jew Mountain, dedicated after , was enlarged several times. In , a marker with the names of 99 former Jewish Laupheim residents who perished during the Nazi period, was prominently mounted on the entrance to the cemetery. Carl Lämmle, one of Laupheim's best know Jews, died in Hollywood in As a young man, he emigrated to the United States in , opened his first movie house in Chicago in and founded Hollywood six years later.

He was named an honorary citizen of Laupheim in The house in which he was born in is located on Ratstrasse 9. Many Buchau and Laupheim Jews moved to Ulm in the second half of the 19th century when after centuries of having been banished from cities Jews were again allowed to settle there.

However, Ulm had already been home to a noteworthy Jewish community in the Middle Ages as evidenced by the " Judenhof " Jewish Court , not far from Ulm's cathedral. This area was home to Jewish families from the midle of the 14th to the close of the 15th century. One of the gravestones from the medieval Jewish cemetery is now part of the exterior of the house on Rabengasse 7. Ulm evicted its Jews in Initially, after some families returned in the early 19th century, they were still counted as belonging to the Jewish community in nearby Laupheim.

Jewish services were revived in The large synagogue dedicated at Weinhof 2 in was destroyed and torn down in A Jewish cemetery , initially part of the erstwhile municipal burial ground, was established on Frauenstrasse today it is a park; only some Jewish gravestones remain.

In the Jewish community was allotted part of the municipal graveyard on Stuttgarter Strasse. It is still in service a new Jewish community was formed in Ulm in ! The house on Bahnhofstrasse 20, where the city's most famous native, the physicist Prof. Jews settled there in the middle of the 18th century. The synagogue was erected in in the residential area outside the center of town, on the opposite bank of the Lauter River, now known as the Mühlsteige.

Enlarged in , the synagogue was destroyed in Since a plaque commemorates its former existence. The Mühlsteige also leads to the Jewish cemetery , partly situated on a steep slope. Lehmann Bernheimer, one of Buttenhausen's well-known sons he later moved to Munich donated the Bernheimer middle school in Jews resided in Hechingen , at the foot of the Swabian Alb, almost uninterruptedly from the 15th to the 20th century.

At times Jews accounted for one quarter of the city's population. It appears that they lived initially mostly on Goldschmiedstrasse, also called "Judengasse" Jew Alley. In a separate Jewish area was developed on Friedrichstrasse, about 1 kilometer outside the city.

Only 10 families were allowed to remain in town, all others had to move into the new development. By the 19th century, Jewish families were again able to reside anywhere. Between and Hechingen had three synagogues: Jews contributed signicifantly to the rapid industrialization of the town in the 19th century; almost all textile as well as other manufacturing facilities were founded by Jewish enterpreneurs.

In medieval times Jews had already settled in the charming town of Haigerloch. A more recent community dates back to the 16th century. Until Jews mainly rented dwellings in town. Thereafter the town ordered local Jews to settle in its "Haag" district.

A synagogue was built at its center in and destroyed in However, the building remains restored in So does the structure next door, which in former times housed the mikve, as well as a nearby building of the Jewish community center, erected in , which contained classrooms and residences to the rabbi and school teacher.

A Jewish cemetery had existed in the 16th century far outside Haigerloch, in a forest near Weildorf. Only a few stones still exist. Since a new cemetery has been located below the Haag residential area.

It includes several commemorative markers. Several Jewish communities made their home in the upper Neckar valley region. The presence of Jews in Rottweil is documented back to the Middle Ages.

What used to be the "Judengasse" Jew Alley is now Lorenzgasse, but no other indications of their residence are extant today. Even though Jewish families were again allowed to reside in town in , the city's Jewish community remained small in the following decades.

Yet a prayer hall existed in Cameralamtsgasse 6; the room, demolished in , was restored under the guidance of experts by the city's youths in The cemetery on the corner of Hoferstrasse and Lindenstrasse was dedicated in Of several Jewish communites in the region around Horb on the Neckar River, a small settlement in Dettensee existed until the beginning of the 20th century; its synagogue was dismantled after the dissolution of the community in Only the cemetery east of town evidences Dettensee's Jewish history.

A small Jewish community in Mühlen am Neckar suffered a similar fate. Its Jews left before World War I. Their graveyard on Egelstaler Weg southwest of the railroad station is the only memento of their former presence.

Of greater significance are the communities in Mühringen, Nordstetten and Rexingen. Mühringen , where a rabbinate was established for many decades, had more than Jewish residents in The large synagogue , built in as an integral part of the town, escaped destruction in , but was torn down in The former rabbinate building still exists; it had also housed the "Hirsch", a Jewish inn.

Relicts of its ritual bath are still in the basement. The large Mühringen cemetery in a forest east of town is particularly impressive. Nordstetten's best known Jewish citizen, Berthold Auerbach born in Nordstetten in , died in Cannes, France, in , ranks among Germany's most popular 19th century anthors. His family resided in Nordstetten for more than years; Auerbach's house of birth on Fabrikweg 2 still stands. His grave is prominently placed in the Jewish cemetery.

Nordstetten's synagogue was torn down around Rexingen had been home to a Jewish community since the 16th century. For decades its population exceeded people. Unlike others, the community did not simply dissolve after ; it displaced to Israel wehre in emigrants from Rexingen founded Shavej Zion, a settlement north of Akko. Its foyer displays many documents recalling the history of the town's Jewish population.

The cemetery south of town, established in , survided intact. Until the Nazi era Horb hat a Jewish community in the middle Ages, in the 17thth century, and yet another since the second half of the 19th century. A prayer hall , dating to the time of the last settlement, is in the building at Fürstabt-Gerber-Strasse 2. The prayer hall was destroyed in , but the building still stands. The small cemetery on Mühlener Strasse, one kilometer outside town, opened in From the 16th century until the time of the Nazis numerous Jewish families resided in Baisingen , northeast of Horb.

A synagogue was built in the socalled "Judengässle" small Jewish alley in , wrecked in and used for storage after The building was restored as a museum and memorial in The Jewish community, revived in the 19th century, erected a synagogue at Gartenstrasse 33 in It was raided in The community's dead were buried near Wankheim a district of Kusterdingen in a cemetery built for the Jewish community that lived in Wankheim in the 18th and 19th century. After Tübingen dedicated its own synagogue in , the Wankheim house of worship was torn down.

In the 19th century nearly every second Jebenhausen resident was Jewish. Today their significance is reflected not only in the cemetery , but also in the Jewish museum , located in Jebenhausen's old Protestant church.

It showcases memorabilia of Jebenhausen's and Göppingen's Jewish history. When the former synagogue was taken down in , some of its interior furnishings were donated to the Protestant church. Göppingen's Jewish enterpreneurs were instrumental in the industrialization of the city during the second half of the 19th century. A memorial on Freihofstrasse recalls the former site of the synagogue , destroyed in Since the municipal cemetery on Hohenstaufenstrasse has also included a Jewish section.

In the Middle Ages many Jews resided in Esslingen ; however there are no architectural traces of their presence.

A new Jewish community, established in , built a central facility, including a synagogue , school and teachers's apartment on Im Heppächer 13 in The building, although damaged in , still stands.

The old Jewish cemetery , in use from to , is on the corner of Mittlere Beutau and Turmstrasse; the new cemetery is part of the public Ebershalden burial grounds. Esslingen's Israelite orphanage "Wilhelmspflege", operated until in the building of Mülbergerstrasse today Theodor Rothschild house , is especially noteworthy. Jewish communities became re-established in both cities in the 19th century; with a population of nearly 5, around , Stuttgart developed quickly into Württemberg's largest Jewish settlement.

Bad Cannstatt had almost Jewish residents at the turn of the century There are four Jewish cemeteries: None of the synagogues, all built in the 19th century, escaped the destruction in The current Stuttgart synagogue at Hospitalstrasse 36, erected in on the site of the former Synagogue , is adjacent to the Jewish community center of the "Israelite Religous Community in Württemberg".

It has 2, members as of The city is studded with reminders of the former Jewish community and its prominent members; among others, the memorial to Otto Hirsch on the Otto-Hirsch-bridges above Stuttgart's harbour. The Jewish section of the Prag cemetery contains a monument to the 2, Jewish citizens of Württemberg murdered between and The "Judengasse" Jew Alley , now the Zwingergasse, was the community's residential area. Jakob ben Yehuda Weil, a leading Jewish scholar, who was born in Weil der Stadt in and died in Erfurt in , won recognition for the town.

Several Jewish settlement were located in the Ludwigsburg area. The communities in Aldingen and Hochberg ceased to exist around when its constituents migrated to the cities. Nevertheless, the synagogue building in Hochberg has been wellkept because it has been a Methodist church since The cemetery on on a hill above the Neckar River has also been preserved. The burial ground served Jews from Aldingen and, for a while during the 19th century, also those from Stuttgart, Cannstatt and Ludwigsburg.

Freudental , northwest of Ludwigsburg, was a center of Jewish life for a large region in the 18thth century. Strombergstrasse, once the "Judengasse" Jew Alley , was the principal Jewish residential area.

A number of buildings recalls its Jewish history. There is the "Judenschlössle", the socalled small Jewish castle and, adjacent to it, the beautiful synagogue , built in , demolished in , but restored in Together with the adjacent structures, some newly constructed, the building serves as a pedagogical-cultural center which sponsors appearances and shows by lectures and artist of all faiths.

Ludwigsburg is at the center of the aforementioned rural communities. The city attracted many families in the 19th century. Their synagogue at the corner of Alleenstrasse and Solitudestrasse was inaugurated in , wrecked and torn down in The property has been converted into a memorial.

Two Jewish cemeteries have been preserved. Each borders on municipal burial grounds. The older of the two is on Meiereistrasse and the newer , in use since , on the Harteneckstrasse. There were numerous Jewish communities around Heilbronn in the "Unterland" low country of Württemberg, particularly in Horkheim, Sontheim and Talheim, all south of the city.

At the end of the 17th century Horkheim took in a number of Jewish families. Their apartments, houses and a synagogue were established in the former water castle. Sontheim is believed to have harbored its first Jewish settlement in the 13th century, and later another in the 17th century. The former synagogue was dismantled in A Jewish cemetery southwest of town was built in cooperation with the Talheim and Horkheim communities in Erected in , it was still caring for Jewish seniors in The facility is a clinic today.

In the 18th and 19th centuries Jewish families in Talheim made their homes primarily in buildings once part of a fortified castle. A synagogue was built in the courtyard. Destroyed in , it is now recalled by a memorial plaque.

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