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Kirche und Staat von der Reformation bis zum Grundgesetz in German.

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It forms the center of the library system of the University, ensuring the supply of research, teaching and studies with literature and other information resources. It stands next to the members of the University and citizens of the city are available. Since , it is located right next to the WLB and belongs since as a department of the Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg in.

It includes the stocks of the county and the duchy Württemberg until , the Württemberg central authorities of the 19th and 20th century and the early 19th century as a result of media coverage of fallen Württemberg gentlemen and imperial cities in South Württemberg. The Stadtarchiv Stuttgart is the archive in charge of the provincial capital Stuttgart. The archived material is in principle open to the public and can be consulted in the reading room in Bellingweg 21 in Bad Cannstatt.

The Landeskirchliche Archives preserve the stocks of the Württemberg church leaders and of other ecclesial bodies and institutions: It also has the microfilms of all church books especially baptism, marriage, and family Death's Register in the area of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg. The "Archive instigator" is dedicated to the dead of the city. Since , the instigators are working on a memoir about "The dead town". So far, about 5, names of victims of the regime of National Socialism have been acquired.

There are two large tours that are available to visitors to Stuttgart. The population of Stuttgart declined steadily between , and , Then low levels of unemployment and attractive secondary education opportunities led to renewed population growth, fuelled especially by young adults from the former East Germany. In April there were , inhabitants in the city. More than half of the population today is not of Swabian background, as many non-Swabian Germans have moved here due to the employment situation, which is far better than in most areas of Germany.

Since the s, many foreigners have also immigrated to Stuttgart to work here as part of the " Gastarbeiter " program ; another wave of immigrants came as refugees from the Wars in Yugoslavia in the s. The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks 22, , Greeks 14, , Italians 13, , Croats 12, , Serbs 11, followed by immigrants from Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Portugal, Poland, France, and Austria. The religious landscape in Stuttgart changed in as a direct result of the Reformation.

However, since the number of Protestants in Stuttgart has dropped from around , to , Muslims, Jews and those who either followed no religion or one not accounted for in official statistics.

Unemployment in the Stuttgart Region is above the average of Baden-Württemberg , but very low compared to other metropolitan areas in Germany. In November , before the annual winter rise, unemployment in the Stuttgart Region stood at 3. Unemployment in the actual city of Stuttgart during the same periods stood at 5. Stuttgart ranks as one of the safest cities in Germany. In , crimes were committed in Stuttgart for every , inhabitants versus the average for all German cities of 12, When Stuttgart was run as a or within the Duchy of Württemberg , it was governed by a type of protectorate called a Vogt appointed by the Duke.

After this role was fulfilled by a City Director or 'Stadtdirektor'. Since the title of Oberbürgermeister the nearest equivalent of which would be an executive form of Lord Mayor in English has applied to Stuttgart and all other Württemberg towns of more than 20, inhabitants. At the end of the Second World War, French administrators appointed the independent politician Arnulf Klett as Burgomaster , a role he fulfilled without interruption until his death in Since this time Stuttgart has mainly been governed by the CDU.

As the capital of Baden-Württemberg , Stuttgart is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the State Parliament, or Landtag as well as all Baden-Württemberg state departments. In June , for the first time the Greens gained the most seats in a German city with more than , inhabitants, effectively changing the balance of power in the city council.

According to the German newspaper Die Welt , the main reason for the Greens' victory was disgruntlement with the controversial Stuttgart 21 rail project.

The city of Stuttgart is administratively divided into 23 city districts [] — five "Inner" districts and 18 "Outer" districts. Each district has a Council headed by a District Director. From there, the districts are broken down into Quarters. Since the changes in city statutes 1 July and 1 January , the total number of quarters rose to The Stuttgart area is known for its high-tech industry.

Stuttgart is home to Germany's ninth biggest exhibition center, Stuttgart Trade Fair which lies on the city outskirts next to Stuttgart Airport. Hundreds of SMEs are still based in Stuttgart often termed Mittelstand , many still in family ownership with strong ties to the automotive, electronics, engineering and high-tech industry.

Stuttgart has the highest general standard of prosperity of any city in Germany. The automobile and motorcycle were purported to have been invented in Stuttgart by Karl Benz and subsequently industrialized in by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach at the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft.

As a result, it is considered to be the starting point of the worldwide automotive industry and is sometimes referred to as the 'cradle of the automobile'.

A number of auto-enthusiast magazines are published in Stuttgart. The region currently has Germany's highest density of scientific, academic and research organisations. No other region in Germany registers so many patents and designs as Stuttgart.

In addition to several universities and colleges e. University of Stuttgart , University of Hohenheim , Stuttgart Institute of Management and Technology [29] and several Stuttgart Universities of Applied Sciences , the area is home to six Fraunhofer institutes, four institutes of collaborative industrial research at local universities, two Max-Planck institutes and a major establishment of the German Aerospace Centre DLR.

Many leading companies in the financial services sector are headquartered in Stuttgart with around credit institutes in total e. Stuttgart is the only city in Germany where wine grapes are grown within the urban area, mainly in the districts of Rotenberg, Uhlbach and Untertürkheim. Wine-growing in the area dates back to when, according to State archives, Blaubeuren Abbey was given vineyards in Stuttgart as a gift from 'Monk Ulrich'.

In the 17th century the city was the third largest German wine-growing community in the Holy Roman Empire. Wine remained Stuttgart's leading source of income well into the 19th century.

Stuttgart is still one of Germany's largest wine-growing cities with more than hectares of vine area, thanks in main to its location at the center of Germany's fourth largest wine region, the Württemberg wine growing area which covers 11, hectares 28, acres and is one of only 13 official areas captured under German Wine law. The continuing importance of wine to the local economy is marked every year at the annual wine festival 'Weindorf'.

Stuttgart also has several famous breweries such as Stuttgarter Hofbräu , Dinkelacker , and Schwaben Bräu. Stuttgart and its region have been home to some significant figures of German thought and literature, the most important ones being Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Friedrich Schiller and Friedrich Hölderlin.

The city, in its engineering tradition as the cradle of the automobile, has also always been a fruitful place of research and innovation. Stuttgart has Germany's second-highest number of institutions six of applied research of the Fraunhofer Society after Dresden. The city is not considered a traditional university city, but nevertheless has a variety of institutions of higher education.

The most significant of them are:. Historically, an elite military academy existed in Stuttgart in the late 18th century — , the Hohe Karlsschule , at Solitude Castle. Friedrich Schiller and the city's most famous Classicist architect , Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, were among its many esteemed alumni. The first Waldorf School also known as Rudolf Steiner School was founded here in by the director of the Waldorf Astoria tobacco factory , Emil Molt , and Austrian social thinker Rudolf Steiner , a comprehensive school following Steiner's educational principles of anthroposophy and humanistic ideals.

Today, four of these schools are located in Stuttgart. It also has a Landesmedienzentrum , a State media center. Furthermore, the city is a significant centre of publishing and specialist printing, with renowned houses such as Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group , Ernst Klett Verlag schoolbooks , Kohlhammer Verlag, Metzler Verlag and Motor Presse having their head offices there.

The Reclam Verlag is located in nearby Ditzingen. The newspapers Stuttgarter Zeitung StZ; regional, with significant supra-regional, national and international sections and Stuttgarter Nachrichten StN; regional are published here as well as a number of smaller, local papers such as Cannstatter Zeitung.

It transmits on FM on This affects all vehicles entering the Stuttgart 'Environmental zone' Umweltzone , including vehicles from abroad. Stuttgart has a light rail system known as the Stuttgart Stadtbahn. In the city center and densely built-up areas, the Stadtbahn runs underground. Stations are signposted with a 'U' symbol, which stands for Untergrundbahn underground rail. Until , Stuttgart also operated regular trams.

Stuttgart also has a large bus network. A peculiarity of Stuttgart is the Zahnradbahn , a rack railway that is powered by electricity and operates between Marienplatz in the southern inner-city district of the city and the district of Degerloch.

It is the only urban rack railway in Germany. Stuttgart also has a Standseilbahn , a funicular railway that operates in the Heslach area and the forest cemetery Waldfriedhof.

In Killesberg Park , on a prominent hill overlooking the city, there is the miniature railway run by diesel and on weekends with steam. It also operates international services to Strasbourg , Vienna, Zürich and Paris five times a day, journey time 3 hours 11 minutes.

Long distance trains stop at Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof , the city's main line terminus which is also used by Interregio-Express , Regional-Express and Regionalbahn trains for services to stations in the Stuttgart metropolitan area. The local rail networks see above operate underneath the terminus.

Stuttgart also has its own rail freight centre with marshalling yards and a container terminal in the Obertürkheim area of Hedelfingen. After years of political debate and controversy, plans were approved in October to convert the existing above-ground main train station to an underground through station. The Stuttgart 21 project will include the rebuilding of surface and underground lines connecting the station in Stuttgart's enclosed central valley with existing railway and underground lines.

Building work started in with controversial modifications to the Hauptbahnhof and should be completed in Stuttgart is served by Stuttgart Airport German: It takes 30 minutes to reach the airport from the city center using S-Bahn lines S2 or S3. Stuttgart airport is Germany's only international airport with one runway.

Despite protests and local initiatives, surveys are currently underway to assess the impact of a second runway. The Autobahn A is a short spur entering the southern side of Stuttgart. Besides these Autobahns, Stuttgart is served by a large number of expressways, many of which are built to Autobahn standards, and were once intended to carry an A-number.

Due to the hilly surroundings, there are many road tunnels in and around Stuttgart. There are also a number of road tunnels under intersections in the center of Stuttgart. Stuttgart has an inland port in Hedelfingen on the Neckar. As in the rest of Germany, football is the most popular sport in Stuttgart which is home to 'The Reds' and 'The Blues'. An established team currently playing in the German Bundesliga , VfB was founded in and has won five German titles since , most recently in and Its three-times German champion women's volleyball team, CJD Feuerbach , has now stopped playing for financial reasons but there is now Stuttgart Volleyball Club with a women's team in the 2nd southern league.

Stuttgart has two major ice hockey teams. The strongest local water polo team is SV Cannstatt, which won the German championship in Stuttgart has two American Football teams: Australian Football is practiced by the Stuttgart Emus — one of only six active teams in Germany. TC Weissenhof is a Stuttgart-based women's tennis team that has won the German championship four times.

HTC Stuttgarter Kickers is one of the most successful field hockey clubs in Germany, having won the German championship in and a European title in Six matches, three of them second round matches, including the 3rd and 4th place playoff, were played at the Gottlieb Daimler Stadium today Mercedes-Benz Arena. Stuttgart is twinned with the following cities: Stuttgart also has special friendships with the following cities: The city district of Bad Cannstatt , which has the second largest mineral water sources in Europe, has a partnership with:.

The metre foot Fernsehturm Stuttgart at night. Neues Schloss at night. The Hegel Museum, birthplace of Hegel. The grave chapel atop the Württemberg. The mild climate and hilly landscape are perfect for viticulture , as the Romans discovered. Pictured are vineyards near Obertürkheim. Neckar river flowing through Hedelfingen and Obertürkheim. Vineyards on the Neckar river in the Mühlhausen area of Stuttgart during the Autumn of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the German city. For other uses, see Stuttgart disambiguation. Clockwise from top left: History of Stuttgart and Timeline of Stuttgart. Germany in the Middle Ages. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. List of people from Stuttgart. View of Stuttgart from atop the Birkenkopf. View from the Killesbergpark. The Chorographia Württemberg of shows a horse rampant facing sinister on a field argent.

Siebmachers Wappenbuch of p. The modern design of this coat of arms dates to and was also adopted as part of the Porsche logo in De Gaulle refused, saying he would stay put until the zones were finalized The American solution was to offer them some bits of Baden and Württemberg while keeping the lion's share for themselves French soldiers' behaviour in Stuttgart, where some 3, women and 8 men were raped, was thought to have added to American fury at their overstepping their lines.

Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg in German. Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 28 March Initiativkreis Europäische Metropolregionen in German. Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 27 July Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Retrieved 25 March Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 23 February The New York Times. Retrieved 17 February Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 8 April Die Geschichte von Stuttgart in German.

Retrieved 2 March Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 17 March Sebastian Sommer, "Die städtischen Siedlungen im rechtsrheinischen Obergermanien" in: Die römische Stadt im 2. Der Funktionswandel des öffentlichen Raumes , Xantener Berichte 2, , ff. Roms Provinzen an Neckar, Rhein und Donau , , 80— Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 24 November This work in turn cites: Mitchell London, seq. Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten Baden-Württemberg. Archived from the original on Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 18 October Archived from the original on 19 October Retrieved 16 October Archived from the original PDF on 4 March Das Leben Wilhelms II.

Stuttgart Zeitung newspaper, online historical archive. Retrieved 16 November Birth of the Beetle: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. An Encyclopedic Reference to U. Retrieved 18 April Der Spiegel in German. Retrieved 3 November Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine.

Archived from the original on 28 July Abschied mit Rede an die deutsche Jugend". Landeszantrale für politische Bildung Baden-Württemberg. Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 18 December Retrieved 13 August Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 24 January Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 12 March Constabulary in Post-War Germany —52 ". Archived from the original on 7 March Archived from the original on 16 February Archived from the original on 6 March Archived from the original on 20 September Retrieved 25 April Retrieved 20 September Check date values in: Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 2 February Official website of Stuttgart.

Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 29 March Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 24 March Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 9 March Retrieved 1 March Retrieved 21 June Archived from the original PDF on 21 October Die Welt in German.

Retrieved 19 June The Development of the Great Schism". Harvard University Press — via Google Books. Retrieved 21 December This Isn't Michigan ". Retrieved 18 March Archived from the original on 18 May Archived from the original PDF on 13 December Archived from the original on 19 December Archived from the original on 9 June Retrieved 10 August Louis Center for International Relations.

Archived from the original on 15 December Retrieved 20 March The promotion of trade and industry has resulted in many firms from the ICT area locating themselves there.

In May the nearby Johannes Westphal Bridge was opened to traffic. This links the newly created Lünepark with the suburb of Goseburg on the far side of the Ilmenau. Since 5 October Lüneburg has been able to call itself a Hanseatic Town; together with Stade it is one of only two towns in Lower Saxony to bear the title. Lüneburg already had about 14, inhabitants in the Late Middle Ages and beginning of the Modern Period and was one of the largest 'cities' of its time, but its population shrank with the economic downturn to just 9, in ; then rose again to 10, in With the onset of industrialisation in the 19th century, population growth accelerated.

If 13, were living in the town in , by there were as many as 35, Shortly after the Second World War, refugees and displaced persons from Germany's eastern territories brought an increase in population within just a few months of around 18, people so that the total number in December was 53, In the 70, level was exceeded for the first time.

The town of Lüneburg, its eponymous district and the neighbouring district of Harburg belong to the few regions in Germany that have experienced such a massive growth. The reasons for this include the growth of areas around the Hamburg Metropolitan Region and the consequent shift of people to those areas. The Lower Saxon State Office for Statistics has forecast that the town of Lüneburg will have a population of 89, by the year More realistic estimates, however, put the future size Lüneburg at between 75, and 79, in that time frame.

On 31 December , according to the Statistics Office, the official census for Lüneburg recorded 72, people those who had their main residence in the town and after adjustments with other states offices — the highest number in its history.

Currently Lüneburg is the eleventh largest centre of population in Lower Saxony. In addition Lüneburg has particularly close relations with its adjacent municipalities which are also growing and with which it is forming an agglomeration. The town council has the plan to extend the population by adding these villages to the town area.

The following overview shows the population figures based on the situation at the time. From the figures were based on those 'present in the town', from on those 'living in the town' and since on the 'population who have their main residence in the town'.

Before the numbers were based on inconsistent survey methods. At one time Lüneburg had over 80 breweries. These beers are brewed today by the Holsten Brewery in Hamburg, although the original yeast stock Hefestämme was destroyed when the Kronen Brewery was taken over. Only the original Lüneburger Pilsener is still produced as before, although it is now made by the Holsten Brewery and only sold on tap. Today there are just two small inn breweries left in Lüneburg. Recently Lüneburg has increasingly developed into a venue for tourists.

Nevertheless, medium-sized and small businesses still play a major role in Lüneburg's economy. The University of Lüneburg has also generated changes which, together with its student population, have stimulated the economy of the region. Many small and medium-sized businesses are based in Lüneburg. In the industrial field there are large local firms like the car interior manufacturers, Johnson Controls , H. Also based in Lüneburg is the von Stern'schen Druckerei , founded in , the oldest printing firm still in family ownership in the world.

The town nursery has created a spa park for tourists and visitors with a 'graduation works', ponds, numerous herbaceous borders and herb gardens which is immediately next to the health spa centre Kurzentrum. The spa centre has wave pools, salt baths, wellness and sauna facilities, etc. Salztherme Lüneburg ; in addition there is a brine therapy centre which is used for those with skin and respiratory problems. Lüneburg is not an official health spa like e. In addition, since , the headquarters of the conference hotel group Seminaris has been based here.

Among firms in the technology and service sectors is Gründungszentrum e-novum , which supports new venture firms. Before the Second World War the lord mayor Oberbürgermeister was the full-time head of the town's administration. On the introduction of the North German council constitution by the British occupation forces power was separated: Since , as a result of the reform of the local constitution, both functions again have been combined in the post of a full-time lord mayor, who is now directly elected by the townsfolk.

In addition to the lord mayor there are other mayors elected by the council who support and represent the lord mayor in his civic duties.

The current mayors are: Despite its moderate size Lüneburg has many partnerships with other towns. In June delegates of all its twinned towns met in Lüneburg and the surrounding area and celebrated the biggest partnership gathering in the region since the Second World War. Lüneburg is twinned with:.

In addition there are various partnerships with other German towns such as Kulmbach and Köthen. Not only are plays of all styles put on, but also operas, operettas, musicals and ballets. Although the financial means of the Lüneburg Theatre are comparatively limited, it is no 'provincial stage' and can hold its ground successfully against the many theatres in nearby Hamburg.

In addition Lüneburg has a large number of amateur theatres, that also produce regular performances. Such a variety in amateur drama is otherwise only found in large cities like Hamburg or Hanover. Examples include arranged in order of year founded:. The historic town is itself a kind of open-air museum a "Rothenburg of the North" , but there are numerous museums and historic churches St. The most important museums are the German Salt Museum in the premises of the old Lüneburg Saltworks , in which the significance of salt in the Middle Ages and the extraction of salt is portrayed, and the Museum of the Principality of Lüneburg, in which the town's history and the history of the surrounding area is captured.

Also worthy of mention are the East Prussian State Museum , the nearby North German Brewery Museum with a gallery of valuable drinking vessels over years , the Kronen Brewery of Lüneburg and the Lüneburg Nature Museum on the edge of the subsidence zone. Lüneburg is one of the few towns in North Germany whose historic centre was not destroyed during the Second World War.

Nevertheless, the general neglect of its buildings until the s and the damage in the area of subsidence has led to gaps in the historic architecture of the town. In addition the demolition of ramshackle buildings in the s and s and the construction of shops with a contemporary design broke up the historic appearance of many rows of houses. Since the beginning of the s, however, Lüneburg has been carefully restored. The restoration process revealed hitherto hidden ceiling frescos , medieval pottery workshops and many historic soakaways Sickergruben from which a considerably better picture of life in the Middle Ages resulted.

In the Lüneburg Stadtteil of Kaltenmoor is St. Stephanus , the oldest ecumenical building in the town, with Protestant and Catholic churches under one roof. Other buildings worthy of mention are the three remaining town churches: Johannis am Sande completed , St.

Michaelis where Johann Sebastian Bach was a choirboy from to , and the relatively 'modern' St. Nicolai which was built in The Church of St. Lamberti was demolished in due to its dilapidated state; it stood in the subsidence area.

The Luna Fountain Lunabrunnen in front of the town hall is graced by a bronze statue of the moon goddess with bow and arrow; the original dating to was stolen in and melted down; the present statue is a replica dating to The port is also home to the "Old Crane" Alter Kran , a wooden, medieval riverside crane that is still in working order today and which has two large wheels inside that enable the crane cable to be raised and lowered.

The fire station moved in autumn to a new building on the edge of the town centre; the Altes Kaufhaus has since been converted into a hotel. On the southern edge of the town centre is the Lüneburg Water Tower which now acts as an observation tower. In front of the gates of the old town is Lüne Abbey , a former Benedictine nunnery.

It was built in and has been restored. About 2 kilometres 1 mile west of Lüneburg, in the villages of Reppenstedt and Vögelsen , is a well-preserved section of the historic Lüneburg Landwehr , a boundary embankment and ditch, that can be walked.

In , the festival Hansetage took place in Lüneburg. The Hansetage is an event which takes place in a different town every year. Nearly , visitors were attracted by this event. Football soccer is the most popular sport in Lüneburg, as in Germany in general; ice-hockey and basketball are also popular.

Most teams compete in the Regionalliga , which is highly ranked within Germany. Lüneburg has the following hospitals: Lüneburg is part of the transportation company Hamburger Verkehrsverbund. There are 11 bus lines in the urban area of Lüneburg. As well as Lüneburg station , there is a smaller one located in Bardowick.

The town has one university, the Leuphana Universität Lüneburg previously known only as the Universität Lüneburg. There are 14 high schools in the town: There are 6 vocational schools, 3 special schools, 3 private schools, and 12 elementary schools. Leuphana Universität Lüneburg has more than 7, students.

The nearby Lüneburg Heath is an anthropogenic heath. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lüneburg disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Location of Lüneburg within Lüneburg district. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. Wahlkreiseinteilung für die Wahl zum Niedersächsischen Landtag.

Achtzehntes Gesetz zur Änderung des Bundeswahlgesetzes. Anlage zu Artikel 1. Members of the Hanseatic League by quarter. Chief cities shown in smallcaps.

Cologne 1 Dortmund 1. Towns and municipalities in Lüneburg district. Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage.


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