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It was part of Bonames until Kalbach was officially renamed Kalbach-Riedberg in because of the large residential housing development in the area known as Riedberg. Together with these towns and some larger nearby towns, e. The urban area had an estimated population of 2. Frankfurt has a temperate - oceanic climate Köppen: Its average annual temperature is With a population of , within its administrative boundaries  and of 2,, in the actual urban area ,  Frankfurt is the fifth largest city in Germany after Berlin , Hamburg, Munich and Cologne.
With , residents in , it was the ninth largest city in Germany and the number of inhabitants grew to , before World War II. After the war, at the end of the year , the number had dropped to , In the following years the population grew again and reached an all-time-high of , in It dropped again to , in but has increased since then. According to the demographic forecasts for central Frankfurt, the city will have a population up to , within its administrative boundaries in and more than 2.
During the s the state government of Hesse wanted to include the entire urban area into its administrative boundaries. This would have made Frankfurt officially the second largest city in Germany after Berlin with up to 3 million inhabitants. According to data from the city register of residents , For the first time a majority of the city residents had a partial non-German background. The city is considered a multicultural city because it is home to people of more than nationalities.
Frankfurt was historically a Protestant -dominated city. However, during the 19th century an increasing number of Catholics moved there. The Jewish community has a history dating back to Medieval times and has always ranked among the largest in Germany.
Two synagogues operate there. Due to the growing immigration of people from Muslim countries beginning in the s, Frankfurt has a large Muslim community. The Ahmadiyya Noor Mosque , constructed in , is the city's largest mosque and the third largest in Germany.
As of [update] the largest Christian denominations were Roman Catholicism Frankfurt is one of five independent district-free cities kreisfreie Städte in Hesse , which means that it does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity, in this case it is not part of a Landkreis.
The other four cities are the second to fifth largest cities in Hesse: Wiesbaden , Kassel , Darmstadt and Offenbach am Main. A kreisfreie Stadt has territorial sovereignty within its defined city limits. Frankfurt is twinned with:. Partnerships and city friendships are a weaker form of cooperation than the sister city relationship, acting more like a fixed-term cooperation or limited to certain projects. Frankfurt has partnerships with the following cities:.
Römer , the German word for Roman , is a complex of nine houses that form the Frankfurt city hall Rathaus. The houses were acquired by the city council in from a wealthy merchant family. The middle house became the city hall and was later connected with its neighbours.
The Kaisersaal "Emperor's Hall" is located on the upper floor and is where the newly crowned emperors held their banquets. The surrounding square, the Römerberg, is named after the city hall. The former Altstadt old town quarter between the Römer and the Frankfurt Cathedral was to be redeveloped as the Dom-Römer Quarter through , including reconstructions of historical buildings that were destroyed during World War II.
Frankfurt Cathedral Frankfurter Dom is not a cathedral, but the main Catholic church, dedicated to St. The Gothic building was constructed in the 14th and 15th centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time. From onwards, kings of the Holy Roman Empire were elected in this church, and from to , Roman-German emperors were crowned there.
Since the 18th century, St. Bartholomew's has been called Dom , although it was never a bishop's seat. In it was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in its present style. It was again partially destroyed in World War II and rebuilt in the s. Its height is 95 meters.
The cathedral tower has a viewing platform open to the public at a height of 66 meters, accessed through a narrow spiral staircase with steps. Paul's Church Paulskirche is a national historic monument in Germany because it was the seat of the first democratically elected parliament in It was established in as a Protestant church, but was not completed until The attempt failed because the monarchs of Prussia and Austria did not want to lose power.
In Prussian troops ended the democratic experiment by force and the parliament dissolved. Afterwards, the building was used for church services again. Paul's was partially destroyed in World War II, particularly its interior, which now has a modern appearance. It was quickly and symbolically rebuilt after the war; today it is used mainly for exhibitions and events.
The Archaeological Garden contains small parts of the oldest recovered buildings: The garden is located between the Römerberg and the Cathedral.
It was discovered after World War II when the area was heavily bombed and later partly rebuilt. The remains were preserved and are now open to the public. There are plans underway to construct a building on top of the garden but anyhow it is decided that the garden will stay open to the public. Wertheim House is the only timbered house in the Altstadt district that survived the heavy bombings of World War II undamaged. It is located on the Römerberg next to the Historical Museum.
The Saalhof is the oldest conserved building in the Altstadt district and dates to the 12th century. It was used as an exhibition hall by Dutch clothiers when trade fairs were held during the 14th and 15th century.
Today it serves as a part of the Historical Museum. It was built in and was the second bridge to cross the river. Today some 10, people cross the bridge on a daily basis. The Alte Oper is a former opera house , hence the name "Old Opera". The opera house was built in by architect Richard Lucae. Until the late s, it was a ruin, nicknamed "Germany's most beautiful ruin".
Later on, Arndt said he never had meant his suggestion seriously. Public pressure led to its refurbishment and reopening in Today, it functions as a famous concert hall, while operas are performed at the "new" Frankfurt Opera. The inscription on the frieze of the Alte Oper says: The Eschenheim Tower Eschenheimer Turm was erected at the beginning of the 15th century and served as a city gate as part of late-medieval fortifications. It is the oldest and most unaltered building in the Innenstadt district.
Catherine's Church Katharinenkirche is the largest Protestant church, dedicated to Catherine of Alexandria , a martyred early Christian saint. It is located in the city centre at the entrance to the Zeil, the central pedestrian shopping street. Although today Hauptwache is mostly associated with the inner-city underground train station of the same name , the name originates from a baroque building on the square above the station.
The Hauptwache building was constructed in and was used as a prison, therefore the name that translates as "main guard-house". Today the square surrounding the building is also called "Hauptwache" formal: It is situated in the city centre opposite to St. Frankfurt Central Station Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof , which opened in , was built as the central train station for Frankfurt to replace three smaller train stations in the city centre and to boost the needed capacity for travellers.
It was constructed as a terminus station and was the largest train station in Europe by floor area until when Leipzig Central Station was opened. Its three main halls were constructed in a neorenaissance -style, while the later enlargement with two outer halls in was constructed in neoclassic -style. The Frankfurter Hof is a landmarked hotel in the city centre at Kaiserplatz, built from to It is part of Steigenberger Hotels group and is considered the city's most prestigious.
Leonhard , on the Main close to the bridge Eiserner Steg, is a Catholic late Gothic hall church , derived from a Romanesque style basilica beginning in The parish serves the English-speaking community. The church has been under restoration since It hosts 14 out of Germany's 15 skyscrapers.
Bartholomeus's Cathedral was the tallest structure. The first building to exceed the metre-high cathedral was not an office building but a grain silo , the metre high Henninger Turm , built from to The first high-rise building boom came in the s when Westend Gate then called Plaza Büro Center and Silberturm were constructed and became the tallest buildings in Germany with a height of None of the buildings constructed during the s surpassed Silberturm.
The most famous buildings from this decade are the Deutsche Bank Twin Towers at Taunusanlage, both The s featured a second wave. Messeturm , built on the trade fair site, reached a height of It was overtaken by the metre high Commerzbank Tower in Other tall buildings from this decade are Westendstrasse 1 In 21st-century Frankfurt, more high-rise buildings and skyscrapers e. With a large forest, many parks, the Main riverbanks and the two botanical gardens, Frankfurt is considered a "green city": More than 50 percent of the area within the city limits are protected green areas.
With more than 30 museums, Frankfurt has one of the largest variety of museums in Europe. Ten museums are located on the southern riverbank in Sachsenhausen between the Eiserner Steg and the Friedensbrücke.
The street itself, Schaumainkai , is partially closed to traffic on Saturdays for Frankfurt's largest flea market. Not directly located on the northern riverbank in the Altstadt district are:. Another important museum is located in the Westend district:. Eurodance and Trance music originated in Frankfurt. By doing so a new genre was born: Some of the early and most influential Eurodance, Trance and Techno acts, e.
Frankfurt offers a variety of restaurants, bars, pubs and clubs. Restaurants, bars and pubs concentrate in Sachsenhausen , Nordend , Bornheim and Bockenheim.
One of the main venues of the early Trance music sound was the Omen nightclub closed Because of the location at the airport the club had no restrictions regarding opening hours. The club had to close at the end of because of stricter fire safety regulations. Also notable for its extraordinary design was Coocoon Club in Fechenheim which opened in was and voted best techno club of the year by music magazines "Groove" and "Raveline" in , , and It closed in The airport has four runways and serves non-stop destinations.
Run by transport company Fraport it ranks among the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe. The airport also serves as a hub for Condor and as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa.
Depending upon whether total passengers or flights are used for calculations, it ranks third or second busiest in Europe alongside London Heathrow Airport and Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport. Passenger traffic at Frankfurt Airport in was There are plans to expand the airport with a third passenger terminal to increase the capacity up to 88 million in The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two railway stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic.
Hahn Airport is a major base for low-cost carrier Ryanair. This airport can only be reached by car or bus. An hourly bus service runs from Frankfurt Central Station , taking about 1-hour and 45 minutes. Frankfurt is a traffic hub for the German motorway Autobahn system.
With approximately , cars passing through it every day it is Europe's most heavily used interchange. The Bundesautobahn A is mainly a commuter motorway which starts in the south Egelsbach , runs through the eastern part and ends in the north Oberursel.
The Bundesautobahn A is a very short motorway in the western part which primarily serves as a fast connection between the A 66 and the Frankfurt Trade Fair. The A5 in the west, the A3 in the south and the A in the north-east form a ring road around the inner city districts and define a Low-emission zone Umweltzone ; established in , meaning that vehicles have to meet certain emission criteria to enter the zone. The streets of central Frankfurt are usually congested with cars during rush hour.
Car parks are located throughout the city and especially in the city centre. By daily passenger volume, it ranks second together with Munich Central Station , each after Hamburg Central Station , It is located between the Gallus , the Gutleutviertel and the Bahnhofsviertel district, not far away from the trade fair and the financial district. It serves as a major hub for long-distance trains InterCity , ICE and regional trains as well as for Frankfurt's public transport system.
Regional and local trains are integrated in the Public transport system Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund RMV , the second largest integrated public transport systems in the world, after Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg. Frankfurt Airport can be accessed by two railway stations: Frankfurt Airport long-distance station Frankfurt Flughafen Fernbahnhof is only for long-distance traffic and connects the airport to the main rail network, with most of the ICE services using the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed rail line.
The long-distance station is located outside the actual airport ground but has a connecting bridge for pedestrians to Terminal 1, concourse B. The regional station is located within Terminal 1, concourse B.
The Frankfurt Trade Fair offers two railway stations: Two other major railway stations in the city centre are Konstablerwache and Hauptwache, located on each end of the Zeil. They are the main stations to change from east-to-west-bound S-Bahn trains to north-to-south-bound U-Bahn trains. Konstablerwache station is the second-busiest railway station regarding daily passenger volume , after the central station.
The third-busiest railway station is Hauptwache station , There are three stations for intercity bus services in Frankfurt: The city has two rapid transit systems: Most routes have at least minute service during the day, either by one line running every 15 minutes, or by two lines servicing one route at a minute interval. When leaving the city the S-Bahn travels above ground. The trains that run on the line are in fact light rail as many lines travel along a track in the middle of the street instead of underground further from the city centre.
The minimum service interval is 2. Frankfurt has ten tram lines 11, 12, 14 to 21 , with trams arriving usually every 10 minutes. Many sections are served by two lines, combining to run at 5-minute intervals during rush-hour. The tram runs only above ground and serve more stops than the U-Bahn or the S-Bahn. A number of bus lines complete the Frankfurt public transport system. Night buses replace U-Bahn and tram services between 1: Taxicabs can usually be found outside the major S-Bahn and U-Bahn stations, at the central station, the south station, the airport, the trade fair and in the crowded inner-city shopping streets.
The common way to obtain a taxi is to either call a taxi operator or to go to a taxi rank. However, although not the norm, one can hail a passing taxi on the street. Uber ceased operations in Frankfurt on 9 November after operating in the city for 18 months. Deutsche Bahn makes bicycles available for hire through their Call a Bike service. The bicycles are stationed all over the city, including at selected railway stations.
They can easily be spotted because of their eye-catching silver-red colour. To rent a specific bike, riders either call a service number to get an unlock code or reserve the bike via the smartphone application. To return the bike, the rider locks it within a designated return area and calls the service number, if not booked via the app. Nextbike also makes bicycles available for hire in Frankfurt.
They are stationed all over the city. These can be spotted with their blue color scheme. Cycle rickshaws velotaxis , a type of tricycle designed to carry passengers in addition to the driver, are also available. These are allowed to operate in pedestrian-only areas and are therefore practical for sightseeing. Frankfurt has a network of cycle routes. Many long-distance bike routes into the city have cycle tracks that are separate from motor vehicle traffic. A number of roads in the city centre are "bicycle streets" where the cyclist has the right of way and where motorised vehicles are only allowed access if they do not disrupt the cycle users.
In addition, cyclists are allowed to ride many cramped one-way streets in both directions. As of [update] , 15 percent of citizens used bicycles. Frankfurt is one of the world's most important financial centres and Germany's financial capital, followed by Munich.
The city's importance as a financial centre has risen since the eurozone crisis. Indications are the establishment of two institutions of the European System of Financial Supervisors European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority and European Systemic Risk Board in and the Single Supervisory Mechanism by which the European Central Bank was to assume responsibility for specific supervisory tasks related to the financial stability of the biggest and most important Eurozone banks.
With over jobs per 1, inhabitants, Frankfurt has the highest concentration of jobs in Germany. On work days and Saturdays one million people commute from all over the Rhein-Main-Area.
The city is expected to benefit from international banks relocating jobs from London to Frankfurt as a result of Brexit to retain access to the EU market. Frankfurt is home to two important central banks: The European Central Bank Europäische Zentralbank is one of the world's most important central banks.
The new building complex was designed to accommodate up to 2, ECB personnel. The location is a few kilometres away from the city centre and borders an industrial area as well as the Osthafen East Harbour , It was primarily chosen because of its large premises which allows the ECB to install security arrangements without high fences.
The Bundesbank was greatly respected for its control of inflation through the second half of the 20th century. In , 63 national and international banks had a registered office, including the headquarters of the major German banks, as well as 41 offices of international banks. Many international banks have a registered or a representative office, e. By the 16th century Frankfurt had developed into an important European hub for trade fairs and financial services.
The most important stock market index is the DAX , the index of the 30 largest German business companies listed at the stock exchange. Deutsche Börse also owns the European futures exchange Eurex and clearing company Clearstream. Trading takes place exclusively via the Xetra trading system , with redundant floor brokers taking on the role of market-makers on the new platform. These markets are at the heart of the financial system and it is crucial for the whole European economy that they remain competitive.
We tried to find a solution, but the remedies offered fell far short of resolving the concerns. It is located in the city centre at the Börsenplatz. Deutsche Börse's headquarters are formally registered in Frankfurt but it moved most of its employees to a high-rise called "The Cube" in Eschborn in , primarily due to significantly lower local corporate taxes. Frankfurt Trade Fair Messe Frankfurt has the third-largest exhibition site in the world with a total of , square metres 6,, square feet.
The trade fair premises are located in the western part between Bockenheim , the Westend and the Gallus district. It houses ten exhibition halls with a total of , square meters 3,, square feet of space and 96, square metres 1,, square feet of outdoor space.
Messe Frankfurt GmbH, the owner and operator company, organized 87 exhibitions in , 51 thereof in foreign countries. It is one of the largest trade fair companies with commercial activities in over countries. A landmark building of the trade fair and of the whole city is the Messeturm the name translates as Fair Trade Tower , which was the tallest building in Europe from to It is located on the north-east corner of the trade fair premises at the so-called city entrance.
Despite the name it is not used for exhibition but serves as an office tower. Frankfurt Airport is one of the busiest airports in the world and is also the single largest place of work in Germany with over companies which employ 71, people The largest employer at Frankfurt Airport is Lufthansa, Germany's flag carrier and Europe's largest airline. Lufthansa employs 35, people in Frankfurt. The airport serves as Lufthansa's primary hub with worldwide destinations compared to destinations at Munich Airport , Lufthansa's second-largest hub.
Lufthansa Flight Training is also based here. Fraport is the owner and operator of Frankfurt Airport. It is the airport's second-largest employer 19, workers in Three of the four largest international accountancy and professional services firms Big Four are present.
It is one of the 10 largest investment trust companies in the world. Many of the largest international management consultancies are represented, including Arthur D. Although it is best known for its banks and financial institutions, Frankfurt is also a centre for media companies. Around companies of the advertising industry and public relations companies are there. In the same year Italian manufacturer Fiat opened its new German headquarters. Some of the largest German construction companies have offices, e.
Frankfurt has Germany's highest concentration of homeowners. This is partly attributed to the financial sector, but also to its cosmopolitan nature, with expatriates and immigrants representing one fourth of its population.
For this reason Frankfurt's property market often operates differently than the rest of the country where the prices are generally flatter.
Frankfurt is home to companies from the chemical, the transportation, the telecommunication and the energy industry. Some of the larger companies are:. The business centre of Eschborn is located right at Frankfurt's city limits in the west and attracts businesses with significantly lower corporate taxes compared to Frankfurt. Deutsche Börse moved most of its employees to Eschborn in Rüsselsheim is internationally known for its automobile manufacturer Opel , one of the biggest automobile manufacturers in Germany.
With 20, employees in , Opel was one of the five largest employers in Hesse. Offenbach am Main is home to the European headquarters of automobile manufacturer Hyundai Motor Company , to the German headquarters of automobile manufacturer Honda , to Honeywell Germany and to Deutscher Wetterdienst , the central scientific agency that monitors weather and meteorological conditions over Germany.
Kronberg im Taunus is home of the German headquarters of automobile manufacturer Jaguar Cars as well as the German headquarters of Accenture. Lufthansa Systems , a subsidiary of Lufthansa , is located in Kelsterbach. Langen is home to Deutsche Flugsicherung , the German air traffic control. Compared to the 's survey the number of satisfied inhabitants has grown about 22 percent while the number of dissatisfied inhabitants was reduced by 8 percent.
Frankfurt consistently has the highest levels of crime per , inhabitants in Germany It is calculated based on the administrative ,inhabitant figure while the urban area has 2.
The rate for personal safety-relevant crimes such as murder, manslaughter, rape or bodily harm, is 3. It was established on 1 January Frankfurt is one of two locations of the German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority Bundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht , short: The BaFin is an independent federal institution and acts as Germany's financial regulatory authority.
The IFC promotes sustainable private sector investment in developing countries. The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek is the largest universal library in Germany.
Its task, unique in Germany, is to collect, permanently archive, comprehensively document and record bibliographically all German and German-language publications from on, foreign publications about Germany, translations of German works and the works of German-speaking emigrants published abroad between and , and to make them available to the public. Frankfurt is one of Germany's leading tourist destinations.
In addition to its infrastructure and economy, its diversity supports a vibrant cultural scene. This blend of attractions led 4. As a profoundly international city, Frankfurt hosts 92 diplomatic missions consulates and consulates-general.
Worldwide, only New York City and Hamburg are non-capital cities with more foreign representation. Two important daily newspapers are published. The conservative Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , also known as FAZ , was founded in and is the German newspaper with the widest circulation outside of Germany, with its editors claiming to deliver the newspaper to countries every day.
The FAZ has a circulation of over , copies daily. The other important newspaper, the Frankfurter Rundschau , was first published in and has a daily circulation of over , Several magazines also originate from Frankfurt. The local Journal Frankfurt is the best-known magazine for events, parties, and "insider tips".
Here is some information that will help you smoothly catch your ongoing flight at Frankfurt Airport. Passenger support service for physically challenged passengers. The official Frankfurt Airport App makes your journey from Frankfurt Airport easier and more convenient than ever before. The app provides all the information you need on your arrival, your flights, your stay and shopping, as well as your connection journey out of Frankfurt Airport.
In addition to German and English versions, the FRA Airport App is also available in a Chinese Mandarin version, which has been adapted to the wishes and expectations of the growing number of Chinese passengers who travel via Frankfurt Airport. At Frankfurt Airport's Welcome Center the staff will provide you all important information concerning your flight and stay at the airport. About a hundred kiosks spread around both terminals provide information in eight different languages.
Our Luggage Storage takes care of your luggage so you can look around at Frankfurt Airport without any additional load. The staff of the Service Points will be happy to answer all of your questions. What not everyone knows: They may be used on a priority basis by passengers whose flights is listed in the display boards at the checkpoints. Waiting times at the checkpoints seen on the App or at the terminal.
To let you plan better for the frequently unavoidable waits at security and passport checkpoints, you can find out the expected waiting times at passport and security checks in real time. How far is it to my gate? Frankfurt Airport has now reduced this stress factor by installing display boards in both terminals.
No matter what airline you fly with, at Frankfurt Airport you can hire the services of a porter or passenger assistant to get you and your luggage where you need to go — conveniently and by the shortest route. Upon request your luggage can be shrink-wrapped at the Frankfurt Airport to preserve them from dirt and scratches. Now you can comfortably transfer from your arrival gate to your connecting flight at Frankfurt Airport.
Bookable for up to five persons.