Imperial Cleaning


There were 53, of them built by Westinghouse during the war using Bausch and Lomb or Optical Research Company glass elements.



We made available at our Questar Library the complete "QUESTAR " , a moderate resolution scanned copy of an original complete twelve 12 page typed instruction manual for the Questar ultra telephoto lens as was provided with each new lens sold from up to when the lens was discontinued in Someday we may add one of these lenses to our Museum display. Content Copyright Questar Corp.

Scanned copy of original from Company Seven's Archives, hosted by permission. Changes up to July We acquired our first Unitron achromatic refracting telescope for permanent display in our museum collection. Ours is a Model , the 60mm x mm focal length telescope with the matching alt-azimuth mount and wood tripod. The instrument merits a place in our collection since these were among the best made and most desired if not affordable first astronomical telescopes for many who grew up through the 's and 's.

We also recall one of our favorite customers, Johnny Carson was drawn further into the hobby in the early 's with his Unitron This telescope is uncommonly complete, with few signs it was ever used unfortunately for the owner? The system has been cleaned and added to the display at our showroom. We intend to write about this telescope, hosting it at our 'virtual museum'.

A formal announcement will be forthcoming. Note, all of this has been accomplished with not a single dollar being donated even in response to our invitation , with no public funding even though desired by them, local governments have become cash strapped and could not assist , and with no formal organizing effort.

The final arrangement for the operation of the observatory makes even better sense than simply donating it to one or another school district since our choice will provide years of continuous competent support of the observatory, and development of outreach programs.

This might not have happened without the help from Doug, he provided sound advice and a warehouse in which to stage the telescope and parts of the observatory while we and John worked to put it back into service.

And of course we are happy to be working with the organization that will host the observatory, but more about them later. This pretty well completes our goal of providing reviews for our customers explaining the better Fujinon 50mm binoculars.

Both of these instruments were announced in but are no longer in production. Added more recent examples of findings to our in-house quality control description page. This explains another of the reasons why Company Seven remains unique in our community: We periodically will add to this page as we receive telescopes that have unusual discrepancies that we may find amusing. OK, we're having some fun here. Added new informative articles to our on line Questar Archives.

This includes adding a new article explaining and illustrating the development of early production Questar telescopes , those made from through Another new article went on line explaining the 'mid production' telescopes as produced from through the late 's. Added additional section and articles to our on line Questar Archives. Also posted the "Questar" booklet , a moderate resolution reprint of original Questar 28 page illustrated booklet provided with new Questar telescopes, dated May File is 2,, Bytes in Acrobat Reader ".

This copy was scanned from the original in Company Seven's Archives. The XX now sits alongside the popular XX in our showroom; these are among the best well thought out and largest easily one man transportable reflecting telescopes made - and for the price nobody can touch them for best value.

Showing actual fields of view of up to 1. With actual fields of view with eyepieces of up to 5. Furthermore, its overall good qualities allow higher magnification work that provides clearly identifiable views of the major changing features on the planets. The EON ED includes hinged Hex mounting rings and a V series mounting plate; these make it suitable for many applications even as a guide telescope or it can easily accept an optional photo-guide telescope.

An optional field flattener lens for imaging applications is among the available options. Each of these telescopes is furnished in a nicely made, comparatively light weight metal-clad and foam lined carrying case.

The Spring production run of the Astro-Physics mm f6. These will be completed for delivery between April and July But it is only in recent days after making several prototypes that we have settled on the optimum arrangement for this new case. We hope to have the first case completed in another week or so by mid March. Once we sort out what our costs have been to get this far then we will be able to quote a price for this new product.

We updated our Astro-Physics Products Availability information page to reflect this and other developments. However, Company Seven has one new uncommitted 90GTO mount available from this Fall production run for sale, these will arrive in November or early December.

Furthermore, Company Seven is now accepting orders for the larger GTO mounts for delivery between late December into April This year's theme will take us on a journey into the heart of the electromagnetic force. Posted updates regarding the status of the former Biosphere 2 Astronomical Observatory, since relocated to Maryland as we work to establish our own Astronomical Observatory to promote science education for primary and middle school children.

We explain how we are also in discussions to house the telescope nearby Company Seven at a research laboratory. Added another example to explain why Company Seven performs in-house quality control acceptance testing and evaluation of new incoming telescopes. Today we added interesting test results of 16 inch primary mirrors that failed our evaluation process this month. In April of Company Seven passed the 29th anniversary of our founding as a legally licensed tax paying business in In Company Seven was originally established at a business location in Bladensburg, Maryland about a 25 minutes drive south of our current location.

Now we celebrate having opened our first full time dedicated telescope store on 1 October at Fairlawn Avenue in the the old 'Laurel Center'. We have since operated a showroom in Laurel continuously for 25 years, and since October we have been in our present showroom at Cherry Lane Court in Laurel.

When we opened there was a telescope shop operated by an enthusiast "Tuthill the astronomer's friend ", etc. However, by Company Seven finds itself among the very few and longest lived competent astronomical telescope oriented specialty showrooms left in the Americas. Throughout this time while others promoted themselves 'bigger', 'cheaper', 'snazzier', 'order now on-line' we outlasted most of them by simply promoting our hobby. We have helped to establish astronomy clubs in schools and communities in the USA and overseas as well.

The name 'Company Seven' is synonymous with uncommonly high standards of integrity and competence, and for unflinching loyalty to those who have elected to associate themselves with us. We are not sure who should thank who the most: Unfortunately for us there is too much work to do, and so do not look for any parties or back slapping at Company Seven this month.

We explain how George Mason University is working to have the telescope installed at their new observatory building topped with an Ash 6 meter diameter dome 1 meter larger than our own at their Fairfax campus for a one or two year loan.

Posted to our Questar Section Library another document from our Archives: A moderate resolution scanned copy of original Questar complete three page typed instructions for the version of the Powerguide AC-DC powered Drive Corrector as was provided up to about The copy shows fold marks and its age resulting from how it was stored in a Powerguide lid.

Scanned copy of original from Company Seven's Archives. Download size is , bytes in Acrobat Reader ". Added illustrated article "Questar 1. From Company Seven's Museum Collection. Added illustrated article "Questar Eyepiece Canisters" Article describing new protective metal cylindrical canisters sold as accessories for the Questar eyepieces. We explain how the telescope was shown at NEAF, an astronomy show this Spring, and how the telescope is being updated to represent the state of the art in RC tech.

Posted "Introducing The Questar 12" , a moderate resolution reprint of original two-third page advertisement from October issue of Scientific American magazine. This selection of filters include lighter and darker variations of red, green, yellow and blue in 2 inch diameter These are particularly desirable for: And for special effects or compensation when imaging with film or CCD cameras.

Evolved from the original Oxygen III filters, this is made with features that are desirable for CCD imaging as well as for visual applications. To claim your rebate simply fill out the Mail in rebate redemption form , include a copy of the Company Seven sales receipt along with a completed copy of your product warranty registration card included in every new Leica product box , then mail it in.

Posted new illustrated article Accessory Cases: Suggestions by Company Seven explaining why accessory carrying cases are really important and with a discussion about what cases we do recommend and some don'ts too.

Posted review of Star Testing Astronomical Telescopes: A hardcover book written by Harold Richard Suiter. Released this month, this is The Bible of telescope star testing and adjustment.

This continues the fine tradition set by the first edition , but this adds even more information and presents it in ways that are more readily comprehended by a broader readership. It is a great choice for those who wish to better understand their telescopes, and possibly improve the performance of that telescope.

Company Seven recommends this title for those persons who have decided to buy an astronomical telescope, or for those who are now considering the choice of astronomical telescope. This can be most helpful when you receive a new telescope since it will teach you how to perform a simple "Star Test", a test method that can be used at the observing site, so that all the problems that impact on a telescope's optical performance can be diagnosed.

And since most telescopes are roughly handled during shipping and they often arrive out of proper alignment, "Star Testing Astronomical Telescopes" teaches one how identify if a telescope is out of adjustment "collimation" , and it will provide insights into how to remedy it. These combine precision optics with laser range finder to not only see distant objects in great detail but also to know their distance from you. A cousin of the innovative Leica GEOVID series of range measuring binoculars, these combine precision light gathering optics with an integral electronic communications module and a sophisticated system of prisms to enable a totally new form of audiovisual communication.

Besides viewing distant objects the user of these binoculars can also talk to other binocular users via a headset. Even data such as text or images can be fed in via the USB port and transmitted at a rate of up to 1 Mbps. This development has evolved from a cooperation arrangement with the well-known secure electronics development company in the USA. This form of bug-proof communication offers special police and military units a wealth of tactical advantages.

What will they think of next? To claim your rebate simply fill out the redemption form , include a copy of the Company Seven sales receipt along with a completed copy of your product warranty registration card included in every new Leica product box , then mail it in. Started work on an entirely new section describing the high-technology superbly well engineered tripods and other accessories made by Particle Wave Technologies.

Company Seven particularly recommends the Pinnacle and Monolith series tripods for the most demanding and more affluent customers who buy mounts including our Astro-Physics GTO series , Losmandy G and Titan mounts.

We will add more and more to this section over coming weeks, including reviews of our experiences with these products. We also completely revised our write up of the Mach1GTO to reflect latest news, and choices of options including the custom tripods made by Particle Wave for Company Seven. The article about this mount now goes into more advice about how to pick the components necessary to make a complete system. Posted our long overdue write up about the Orion DeepMap , a durable folding plasticized Star Chart.

This is among those indispensable publications that Company Seven recommends to those who are interested in learning their way around the night sky. Steve Peters, the editor of DeepMap , conceived of this chart of the night sky geared for customers who are new or moderately experienced to the hobby and who buy a telescope or binocular and now seek out what to see and when.

Fully color illustrated, the DeepMap shows the positions of more than six hundred of the finest celestial objects visible from the Northern Hemisphere. Each of these objects are plotted on a giant 33 x 21 inch full-color star chart by world-renowned celestial cartographer Wil Tirion. The chart is easy to read, and you will see more of the night sky when reading this with an optional red flashlight.

To learn more about how impressive this handy chart is, browse the DeepMap's more than contents: For the inexperienced beginner we also recommend acquiring the large David H.

Levy Guide to the Stars Planisphere. This is not a rehash of manufacturer literature, instead Company Seven waits to evaluate new line production samples firsthand before we decide whether or not to offer them; this may explain why we are often among the last retailers to market newly announced products - we wait until they are a reality. So this review is based on direct experience, and is a well illustrated article describing this state of the art durable spotting telescope.

In these economic hard times this may be out of reach for most mere mortals, but we can at least wonder about this incredible accomplishment of technology. Also added on our site an improved Leica Accessories for Binoculars and Spotting Telescopes index page. This links to several new articles: And unfortunately, we also revised Leica Pricing section to reflect 1 January changes and new products. Added new page describing a new accessory we are offering for Telrads sold by Company Seven, the 2 and 4 Inch Riser for the Telrad Sight.

For use with stage lighting, this can place the Telrad higher off the heat generating surface, or put the Telrad Sight window at a more convenient orientation for the technician. Posted announcement by SBIG of the new AllSky CCD System , their third generation of imaging system that permits the continuous acquisition of high quality degree views of the sky.

Originally the AllSky camera concept was developed so that remotely operated astronomical observatories could monitor the changing sky and weather conditions. Since their introduction some remarkable accomplishments have been made with these instruments including the detection of meteors streaking across the sky; the images from these first generation systems were so good that scientists could use the data gathered by several of these systems in adjoining states to determine the trajectory and other information about these alien visitors!

This article contains the only known photograph of our Beneficent Dictator! Read more about the iMdc and an overview of the presentation. Updated Company Seven index and home pages to reflect change to Standard Time. This coming year's theme will be a celebration of the International Year of Astronomy. Posted the announcement with specifications about the new TeleVue 6mm Ethos and 17mm Ethos eyepieces. Since the TeleVue 13mm Ethos eyepiece was introduced in we have enjoyed the opportunity to experience the amazing degree apparent field of view.

And we anticipate a similar experience while we accept orders for the new 6mm Ethos and 17mm Ethos, with deliveries planned to commence in January or February Revised our articles describing two of our favorite books for the beginning to intermediate amateur astronomer: And Nightwatch Revised Edition reprinted in , a softcover spiral bound book also by Terrence Dickinson that is a among the best laid out and best written budding amateur astronomer's guides to understanding the night sky.

Also published our review of the Astronomy color illustrated wall calendar edited by Terrence Dickinson. Announced in October and in production throughout most of , the mount features a working payload capacity of about lbs. It is transportable, with Astro-Physics recommending at least two able bodies to attend to it.

You will like what you see and read about these mounts. Pricing and availability information for this product are now on line, and we are accepting orders for deliveries starting in late September and continuing into the Fall It is planned that Company Seven will order one for display in our showroom and so you will be able to see it here.

However, we are not certain how many more of these mounts will be made in the near future, so we encourage those who seek a premium mount at an unrivaled price order from this current production run.

For readers interest, and to aid clubs who plan to build an observatory we added another Image Gallery illustrating the Disassembly of the Biosphere 2 Astronomical Observatory Telescope and Dome from 22 to 25 June We then loaded the facility and transported it to Maryland, arriving on 27 June.

The shipment was unloaded into a storage facility on 30 June. So now we own and posses the Observatory telescopes, Dome, facilities, blueprints, and images that document this process.

This documentation should make the disassembly and reassembly go much more quickly and uneventfully. Posted the first several pages of a new product line at Company Seven. Company Seven has been recommending the product line to some of our customers, even before we agreed to distribute them. In particular we are drawn to the Tele-Station series of observatories with their sliding roof arrangements, and also to their series of Piers including motorized elevating models.

So now we own the Observatory telescopes, facilities, blueprints, and images that document this process. The first of two production runs is well underway, and we anticipate starting to make deliveries in July continuing through November Company Seven will be referring to our waiting list to determine to whom our allocation will be offered, as such we will be selling these by invitation only.

Posted an entirely new product line to Company Seven. These are sold in support of our UV capable microscopes for use in research, industry, and law enforcement studies conducted below nm.

The TCF-S3 can be controlled locally or remotely. And it features a clear aperture of 3 inches Company Seven expects to refer to our waiting lists and extend invitations when orders are being accepted. Posted the announcement with specifications about the new TeleVue 8mm Ethos eyepiece. And we anticipate a similar experience while we accept orders for the new 8mm Ethos, with deliveries planned to commence in July or August Company Seven expects to start referring to our waiting list and extend invitations to order within days.

It goes against our nature to divulge any mention of these types of activities, but we weighed the merits against the consequences before arriving at this conclusion. We rarely act out of fear, but it would have been only a matter of days before Mike Wallace and the '60 Minutes' news team would probably have appeared at our doorstep.

It is uncommonly complete and original, with original sales invoice and some documentation. The RV-6 represents to us one of that class of amateur telescopes that from the 's into the 's gave many amateurs their first good glimpse of the celestial wonders, and inspired the passion in us for the hobby.

In keeping with our goals of conservation and documentation we have prepared an article Criterion RV-6 Dynascope: The telescope is likely to be conserved and not restored to like new, but over time as we learn more about it then we will edit the articles to share the information. This was a lot of hard work but for a subject close to the heart, it is worthwhile. It has produced some remarkable images of Venus, the Sun, and word is spreading fast among amateur and professional photographer who are discovering the world of UV imaging thanks to sensitive digital SLR cameras.

Posted a new article in our Questar Library section. We also explain how these may be employed to facilitate navigating the night sky and the Moon. For detailed price listings please read our TeleVue Product Prices page. Added additional information to our Geochron World Clock section.

Also added additional information about how these units are constructed. Published an article at Geochron News to discuss the change of ownership where Geochron Enterprises Inc.

This pretty much completes our reviews of their 50mm to 70mm, and some mm aperture models - just in time for Comet Holmes 17P! Look at the image, can you find the anomaly?

We are amused that most E-tailers never even see the box, while a few other shops claim they check what they sell yet few return anything to the distributor. Now, where will you buy your own binocular or telescope? This is another one of the numerous specialized accessories developed by Questar decades ago when they were pretty much alone in providing such comprehensive solutions for so many pursuits in the hobby.

Completed and posted article describing the optional Losmandy GPS , a receiver that is made to attach to the control panel of the Losmandy Gemini mount control system to automatically provide the system with location, date and UTC Time. Reverted the Company 7 index page to read Eastern Standard Time. Published a preview of a new coming high performance German Equatorial Mount: Nicknamed 'el Capitan' , this mount features a working payload capacity of about lbs. You will like what you see and read here.

Pricing and exact availability have not yet been determined so we are establishing a wait list of candidates for this product. We produced a detailed and well ordered series of articles explaining and illustrating the NPis , TeleVue's 5 inch Imaging System telescope, and their Imaging System collection of accessories. The Imaging System or 'is' was introduced in the Spring of consisting of a selection of new accessories developed by TeleVue specifically to complement their 'is' series telescopes including: While intrigued, we were simultaneously disappointed by TeleVue's decision to drop the original TeleVue NP 5 inch Apo from production.

And we held concerns that some that some of the 'is' accessories resembled poorly executed afterthoughts. Furthermore, TeleVue made a decision as a manufacturer to promote only a handful of E-Tailers as 'featured dealers'; this practice while not unprecedented in this industry undermines what remains of the few competent, service oriented specialty telescope showrooms.

So in and into Company Seven determined there was no need to divert our resources to support the 'is' effort. Over our opinion of the 'is' accessory products changed as we observed the system become more refined and expand into a more comprehensive and better performing solution. And frankly, several of these telescope are just too good not to feature for our clientele.

And so in the interest of supporting C7's customers who are buying 'is' telescopes, we made the effort to demystify the system. Writing these illustrated articles was a bit of a Herculean task since the system is at first glance confusing, and even the initial materials provided to us by TeleVue were simply overwhelming. Regardless, our result will be helpful to our customers. Posted new articles of historic interest: Both cases illustrated are in Company Seven's Museum Collection. And another article that is more relevant to today describes the Deluxe Leather Case which may be ordered as an upgrade in place of the standard Vinyl-Clad Case when ordering a new Questar Questar Standard or Duplex astronomical telescope.

The leather case is provided as part of the standard equipment with the limited production Questar 50th Anniversary Model telescope. Updated Leica Prices page to reflect the latest increases necessitated by the devaluation of the US Dollar against the European currencies.

Published our review of the new TeleVue 'Ethos' eyepiece. But it was only in this month that we had the opportunity to experience it's degree apparent field of view. The introductory pricing and availability for the new TeleVue 'Ethos' eyepieces has been announced. This stunning new eyepiece features a degree apparent field of view.

The Ethos series of eyepieces are coming available at Company Seven in September and since we have been accepting orders against our first shipment of 13mm Ethos, and now that we can actually say what these will cost we are proceeding to contacting those who are on our list to finalize the sales.

Come visit one of the last remaining showroom oriented telescope specialty shops in the Americas to see the new 13mm Ethos. These are available with the customer's choice of either 2.

The first production run is well underway, and we anticipate starting to make deliveries in September and October ! Company Seven will refer first to our waiting lists of people who previously expressed their interest in these mounts, and we should have enough slots to accommodate all on our waiting list and some new comers too.

Added article "Arthur C. We also add some notes that we found interesting about the the locations upon which the book is based. From Company Seven's archives. Updated our Geochron world time display section to show the various vinyl, wood, and leather finishes in which the Geochron can me made, and to clean up appearance and logical arrangement of the site.

Also added articles to our Geochron Library describing how to install the Geochron with either the Surface Mount or Flush Mount hardware. The Geochron remains one of the most stunning and educational mechanical devices that can grace a home or office. Updated our Universal Astronomics Price page to bring it in line with changes. This product line offers quite well engineered alt-azimuth mount systems for telescopes and wonderful parallelogram mounts for binoculars.

But there are many choices with many names of products that are similar, so that it is daunting for the mere mortal to deconvolute the product descriptions and understand what really works with what. So we added illustrations to this page, and describe the items a bit better to help our own staff as well as our customers understand it better. In time we are likely to expand the UA area of our web site to include more of their interesting mount systems. The prototype 13mm model was announced to the public on 28 April and demonstrated on the TeleVue NP attaining immediate critical acclaim.

The Ethos series of eyepieces are expected to start coming available at Company Seven late in the Summer of and we are already accepting orders against our first shipments.

Company Seven made the earthshaking decision to accept PayPal form of payment. We are traditionally excruciatingly cautious not only about what we offer to our clientele, but also about new business methods. And so our accepted forms of payment now include: But our clients should not be too concerned about this trend at Company Seven to operate something like a business; we will retain our unique character.

Unit illustrated is from Company Seven's Museum Collection. Our goals include to be able to host an on line virtual museum that shows items that we have on display in our showroom and archives. This beautifully done complete five page color illustrated review of this versatile telescope.

Includes sketches of Jupiter, reviews of deep sky obseving, discussion of experiences with imaging through the ZS with a Digital SLR Camera accompanied by sample images of: Added illustrated review about the newly introduced Orion mm ED a 4.

This optical tube assembly is even better suited for most astronomical applications than it's popular smaller cousins the Orion mm ED and 80mm ED which were both introduced with much critical acclaim. Updated Technical Innovations Dome Prices page. Until now, there has been little printed information available on creating and operating robotic observatories with contemporary observing equipment and computers.

This illustrated 57 page booklet as a service to the astronomy community by drawing on the experiences of the authors and that of our customers. This booklet will help you learn the practical side of operating a telescope and observatory by remote control.

The Remote Control Astronomy Handbook describes how to automate an observatory including sections about the observatory, the telescope, cameras and computers. It is intended primarily for astronomers at the advanced amateur level and for professionals who need some orientation to the subject.

Updated Leica Prices page to reflect the pricing. Updated Product Lines page to reflect the introduction of William Optics line of refracting telescopes and accessories.

We have started to put this section on line and expect to get into publishing some detailed overviews of the individual telescopes that we are evaluating and showing including the Megrez 90 APO, FLT , and FLT telescopes. As a side note, Company Seven's primary area of work is for Government and industry; the profits from this work have historically permitted our staff to operate the astronomical side of our business in a rather idealistic manner.

However, recent demands upon our most capable staff, including extensive travel to overseas, have left us lacking the people to maintain and update this Web Site as we would routinely have preferred to do.

Furthermore, we can not simply trust hiring a "Beltway Bandit" with no knowledge of our industry to maintain the site and provide the valuable and insightful content. So we ask for your patience as we adapt to the changing demands made of us. Note, our routine practices and our showroom operations continue unabated. Hosting an ilustrated article not related to Company Seven directly but interesting nonetheless since it explains what went wrong when one of our staff ordered a custom high tech bicycle frame based a well regarded manufacturer Internet advertising and catalogs, and those of the US based importer.

A C FLR Bicycle Frame Nightmare , is an excellent business school lesson on how not to deliver what was promised, and then how to make attempt poor attempts to excuse even after the customer clearly shows what he received is not what was represented, and finally how to turn the customer completely off to your company. This is interesting, amusing, and almost tragic reading for any corporate CEO. Put on line an overview of the Questar 50th Anniversary Model , a limited production telescope that we have been offering since it was introduced in We are finally getting around to writing it up as we work to fill out our Questar section.

Described the Telrad Pulser , a blinking circuit kit for the Telrad Sight. We revised our discussion of the Questar Duplex telescope. This permits the operation of the telescope world wide from a compact 9 volt DC battery, it can be ordered with a new telescope or installed as a retrofit. And to show a token effort to support our Birding clients we would not wish to compromise our credentials among the astronomers we revised our discussion of the Questar Field Model telescope.

Revised our Losmandy Library Section to update some files and add new documents including: This is a limited production set including one each 32mm, 24mm, 16mm, 12mm, 8mm and the new 6mm Questar Brandon with beautiful red fabric lined walnut wood case.

Also put on line information describing the about the regular production Questar Brandon Eyepieces. Put on line a new article about the Fujinon 15x 60 mm HB binocular. The largest of their HB series, these are designed for the demanding applications of the naturalist and hunter where the binocular may be subjected to shock, vibration, and environmental extremes hence their HB Hunting Binocular suffix.

These are a center focus roof prim arrangement offering a good balance of optical performance and cost, with waterproof Military Spec. However, Company Seven will provide this product as a service for clients of Company Seven only on a special order basis. If demand accelerates then we may show the mount in our showroom. In time, we expect Vixen North America will offer and support the product too.

Put on line the page Company Seven ATA Cases for Telescopes, Mounts, Sensitive Instruments providing a brief overview of the custom designed transport and storage cases we make for optical and mechanical systems, for sensitive electronics including computer CPU's and monitors.

Put on line the David H. Levy Guide to the Stars , our most recommended Planisphere. The night sky is mapped with the Constellations being those patterns recognizable to man since time immemorial.

Constellations can be thought of as countries or states on a world map, where if you seek the Grand Canyon then you know to find Arizona. While in the night sky when one seeks the Great Nebula then one looks toward the Constellation Orion. The Planisphere is the simplest device with which to start ones' trek into the night sky. The Planisphere makes it very easy for one to find out what constellations and major deep sky objects are up overhead at any given time of the day or night.

These are made in two sizes 11 or 16 inch diameter, available in either English or Spanish, and for use in either Northern or Southern Hemispheres. These are a two piece plastic disc assembly with a map of the entire night sky one the rear chart disc, and another overlay disc attached over the chart disc. The overlay has a transparent window with a surrounding mask to simulate the North, South, East and West horizons. The overlay is dialed to line up its local time indicator marks with the Month and Day printed around the edge of the chart disc, and so when properly set this will reveal what parts of the sky may be seen at any time of the year.

The war had seen steady increases in government contracts for equipment from Zeiss. In response to the increased demands the company rolls swelled from the 5, arbeiter und angestellte workers and employees of , up to a peak of 11, workers in It would be some months later when the Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June , that the war between Germany and the Allied Powers was formally ended.

This treaty would all but guarantee World War II. The devastatingly effective Allied blockade of food and material to Germany continued until July The post war environment of to was one of marked decline in demand for products from the government, as was the case for many manufacturing companies on both sides of the war.

However, the financial chaos that enveloped Europe, and especially Germany after the Treaty of Versallies, resulted in not only in a predictable decline of demand for military related optics but this also stifled demand by consumers too. The civilian population were strapped by the consequences of the war; they could not ameliorate the precipitous decline in demand even for manufactured consumer products.

This led to dramatic lay-offs of personnel and reduction of production. Zeiss International Marketing, Alliances, and the War: Other firms offered Zeiss products including: After the war the Treaty of Versailles imposed strict and arguably unfair terms and conditions on Germany. Economic and political conditions in Germany continued to free fall for some time after the war with runaway inflation, and rampant shortages; conditions were difficult for German manufacturers.

In the German photographic industry for example, the prices published by manufacturers were being quoted as subject to change, and with the factory retaining the right to delay promised delivery dates.

Some of these subsidiary companies produced military optics binoculars and range finding optics for example which if made in Germany might have aroused international concern. A business man with proven experience, Bennett had already spent considerable time visiting Dresden and Jena, learning about the technology and nurturing business relations that would later help him lock in his position with Zeiss. In he was the appointed representative for Ica-Contessa Cameras.

By the organization had moved to occupy the entire 11th floor of the building at and West 23rd Street, New York City. This was partitioned into a showroom to host visits from professionals and members of the trade, stock rooms, and business offices.

Regional representative agent offices were also established in Chicago, and Los Angeles. However, the post war era found many countries with thriving consumer markets demanding cameras and other goods. So whole things could have been better, found 5, gainfully employed workers celebrated the seventy-five year anniversary of the founding of the Zeiss company. As in the images above from and , note the domed octagonal Ernst Abbe Denkmal at Carl Zeiss Platz just left of center in the foreground.

This seems to be an updated and enhanced version of the illustration from ; note the horse-drawn carriage and vehicle by the intersection, and even the number of pedestrians appear identical, and they are all located at the same spots.

Click on image to see enlarged high resolution view 1,, bytes. By electrical headlights were in production at Jena. Shortly after World War I the demand for these components increased with production expanding between and into related areas of spot lamps, and fog light headlamps.

But, by Zeiss sales in these areas had declined to insignificance as may other companies entered the market, at times with improved designs and often selling at far lower prices. Hans Lehmann at the Ernemann Werke at Dresden prototyped a very high speed movie camera that produced images that when played back on a conventional projector, it allowed the study of motion. The original hand driven commercial camera operated at about frames per second but, with improvements over the years Zeiss eventually produced cameras capable of many thousands of images per second.

Representation overseas increased too for example the Carl Zeiss, Inc. The advertisements for Zeiss in the U. As the demand grew for larger and more complicated telescopes and mountings, this could be met only by a firm with well-integrated resources including Zeiss.

One of the technologies that Zeiss pioneered and dominated before World War II, was the development and production of planetarium instruments.

A planetarium instrument is housed in the center of a room with a hemispherically domed ceiling. The instrument projects points of light and images of deep sky objects onto the ceiling to simulate the night sky from various perspectives including seasonal, or historical views of the Earth-sky relationship.

These instruments were single handedly responsible for motivating many young people to explore and to better comprehend astronomy and celestial navigation. They asked Zeiss to propose a design for a new educational instrument to teach astronomy at their forthcoming larger facility.

The reply was a concept by Dr. Walter Wilhelm Johannes Bauersfeld 23 Jan. The conceptual instrument was discussed as early as with Dr. Max Wolf, Director of the Heidelberg Observatory. Walter Wilhelm Johannes Bauersfeld , bytes. As a result Zeiss moved forward with the engineering designs then constructed two planetarium instruments and their hemispheric domes. These first planetarium projectors projected: Note the program lecturer is holding a flashlight with an arrow over the lens, this was used for pointing out objects on the ceiling of the Planetarium dome.

World War I delayed the development but commencing immediately after in Bauersfeld led the team to construct a unique projector, and it was he who managed the team that created the first modern planetarium.

This first projection planetarium was constructed at the Zeiss Jena factory and was demonstrated there to the museum directors before dismantling, transportation and final installation. Zeiss patented the device in and the first planetarium instrument in the world, a Zeiss Model I, was placed into service in 21 October The original instrument was designed to reflect the sky above Munich and it created such a sensation that Zeiss was giving demonstrations to military, ocean navigational companies and countless others there.

What had been an engineering exercise to create a special instrument for a single museum became a great product for education and inspiration. By Kurd Kisshauer had left Zeiss and moved to Dresden where later in he became the Director of the newly completed Municipal Planetarium Dresden. Where ever there planetarium instruments were installed they became a source of civic pride. And these sales were a source of revenue for a company that was working hard to survive the great depression.

Even after World War II both Zeiss companies would establish planetarium production at their headquarters, and their domes would figure prominently in the skyline of their factories. Even though after the second world war these were never really a profit center for Zeiss, it was a matter of social responsibility and corporate pride that inspired Zeiss to continue production. This may have had something to do also with the leadership and influence of Dr.

Bauersfeld, who had been deeply involved with the development of astronomical telescopes, their mounts, and instruments. Since Bauersfeld had also taught Astronomical Physics and Engineering Mechanics as an Associate Professor, and from to was ordentlicher Professor Professor ordinarius at the University of Jena. The company became known in many areas including the production of optical and measuring equipment, binoculars, small telescopes and even larger and more complicated astronomical telescopes.

Moving into the 's Nikon worked to produce more sophisticated camera lenses but the company, lacking engineering know-how, ran into roadblocks. So by Nippon Kogaku persuaded eight German optical engineers to come to work for the company.

A series of lenses whose designs were modeled on the Zeiss Tessor were designated "Anytar" lenses. Seven of the German engineers returned home in while Acht remained until , this was happening as in-turn Kakuya Sunayama, the General Manager of the Lens Design Department, visited Germany to learn more about optics.

Sunayama acquired a Carl Zeiss 50cm F4. The Zeiss lens was disassembled, studied, and essentially copied so that by Nippon Kogaku had completed their first prototype camera lens and designated this the Tessor-type Anytar 50cm F4. This lens was followed by the Anytar 12cm F4. By the Triplet, the Tessor and the Dagor type lenses were in production. Improving upon the original designs by the Anytar 12cm F4. With the prospects for developing a system of photographic lenses it was decided to market them under a unifying name, thus the NIKKOR brand was born in By the Hensoldt company, with its factory in Wetzlar, had the Carl Zeiss company as a shareholder.

Hence the similarity between the appearance of traditional Hensoldt roof prism binoculars made since about and several Carl Zeiss roof prism products up to today. Improvements continued, including the shift from binocular housing construction of brass and zinc to lighter weight metals including aluminum and magnesium. As mentioned previously, camera production became an important sector for Zeiss, with their dozens of brands and factories involved in production for that market.

Ludwig Bertele - another famous name in optics design. The increased emphasis in this growing market lead to a landmark negotiation in the history of Zeiss with the founding of Zeiss Ikon in Zeiss Ikon AG resulted from the planned merger of four well regarded names in the photo industry, and by the establishment of two new subsidiaries. The business plan was to unify, under Zeiss, the production and marketing of: Zeiss Ikon facilities now included the Ica factory in Dresden, two Goerz factories in Berlin which also made searchlights, medical instruments , and the Contessa Werke in Stuttgart.

Zeiss Ikon AG would remain based in Dresden, there in they began to produce box cameras under the tenure of Dr. Carl Zeiss entered the 35 mm format camera market, that had been pioneered by rival Ernst Leitz Optische Werke, of Wetzlar.

These cameras in prewar and in postwar configurations too earned Zeiss worldwide respect and admiration, their success led to the development of the Contarex and the Contax RTS camera series, some of which were fabricated by Yashica-Kyocera of Japan years later under license to Zeiss specifications.

Lenses made by Carl Zeiss were made for sale with cameras manufactured by other firms such as Rollei and Exacta at Dresden.

Zeiss lenses made in Germany and by Yashica continue as the choice for several camera manufacturing firms including Hasselblad of Sweden - even though in the mid Hasselblad seriously contemplated offering Nikon lenses. And Zeiss lenses to this day also remain available for use with many commercial products including copiers, photogrammetric cameras, comparators, etc.

This was to introduce several generations of youngsters and adults to a rare treat - a tour of the heavens. Zeiss optics were so well regarded and known around the world that this advertisement featured the Radiogram thanking Carl Zeiss, Inc. The Radiogram was sent from Richard E. Carl Zeiss binoculars advertisement of , with text of the advertisement to the center of the page: Click on image to see enlarged view of the advertisement. They are a pleasure to use, and their high quality is much appreciated.

These telescopes were offered in apertures of up to 65cm Large pedestal or tripod mounted binoculars of from 60mm up to 15cm with 20x, 40 and 80x magnification oculars mounted in a turret were in production.

Mirror telescopes of Newtonian, Cassegrain and Schmidt designs included models up to 1. Zenith telescopes, spectrographic instruments and attachments, micrometers, photometers, comparators, coelostats of at least up to 65 cm diameter, and sundials of up to at least 90cm diameter rounded out the product line. And of course the production of telescopes was accompanied by the fabrication of mounts and drives to move them, and the domes to house them. So a notable amount of the light 4 to 6 percent per surface approaching a lens was reflected off each lens surface - front AND back too.

Consider an easy example for a moment - what do you see when you walk by a window pane? There is enough light reflected off that glass surface so that you can discern the image. The same thing was happening in telescopes, eyepieces, camera lenses - but worse since optical instruments and lenses consist of multiple elements of glass, there was the tendency not only to reflect light off the first lens surface but also to reflect light back and forth between uncoated air-spaced elements in the system.

So it was another noteworthy milestone when on November 1, a team led by Dr. The AR coatings remained a closely guarded technology, a military secret, applied only to the most critical optical elements until about After then they were applied to the lens elements of more and more devices binoculars, rangefinders, etc.

Also of note, Dr. Smakula was involved in the development of synthesized crystals, grown from solutions in a laboratory environment.

It should be mentioned that the first AR coatings were not very durable. These coatings are only four-millionths of an inch thick but when applied on all air to glass surfaces, increased light transmission through a binocular and in the case of a 7x 50 this might mean an increase of from For example by the lenses and prisms of most U. As binoculars were returned to service centers for repairs or maintenance, upgrades such as changing older uncoated lenses to the newer antireflection coated optics could have been retrofitted to some Mod versions.

In Carl Zeiss West Germany formally announced their improved antireflective coatings technology for lenses at Photokina in Cologne. Phase Correction facilitates a more uniform throughput of light across a wide portion of the visual spectrum thereby resulting in further improvements of resolution and contrast by systems incorporating roof prisms.

Zeiss continues to refine and improve these coatings technologies. Carl Zeiss Jena had become a Social-Democratic bulwark. Yet from and through World War II the management of the Carl Zeiss industrial complex had generally supported the Nationalsozialismus Nazi regime as did most major German industries, although there are examples of personal risk taken in favor of high moral principles.

By the corporate priorities were obviously changing. In Dresden where camera production had been dominant, civilian products and development were gradually discouraged in favor of those products such as bombsights, which met the more immediate goals of the government. By Zeiss catalogs listed about twenty high quality monocular, binocular and stereomicroscope configurations in their literature.

They also marketed a wide selection of optional attachments and illuminators including at least thirty-three objectives of from 2X to X including six Fluorite models, and about twenty eyepieces of Huygens, Orthoscopic, and Compensating designs of from 3X to 30X. As early as in the actions by the government of Japan in China had prompted President Roosevelt to direct his Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau to evaluate options for economic sanctions, and clear them with the Department of Justice.

Tensions with Japan eased and these plans were tabled. The subsequent actions by Nazi Germany in , the Anschluss and later the annexation of the Sudetenland, did not provoke U. The Presidential act was based of the Trading with the Enemy Act of as amended by Congress in Executive Order initially applied solely to Danish and Norwegian assets held in the United States, it attempted to isolate control of these assets, financial or business or otherwise, from Nazi Germany.

The Department of State had argued against implementing the order, wanting the U. As Germany advanced through Europe in and , the assets of those counties that became occupied were similarly frozen.

On 14 June the President issued Executive Order that extended controls over: Germany including Danzig, Austria, and Poland , Italy, the Soviet Union only through 22 June when Germany invaded it , neutral nations, small principalities, and several countries that had not not previously been included. Interestingly enough, throughout World War II one could find newly produced Carl Zeiss licensed designs of optical equipment.

For example there were military issue binoculars made in the United States based on Zeiss designs and that appear identical to those of Zeiss Jena, but that were made made by United States companies as late as in and still bearing a modified Zeiss logo. Throughout this time Carl Zeiss Inc.

In the years just before and for a year or two after World War II began arguably in September there had been an air of invincibility in Germany. However, by late it became clear to the Nazi administration that the Allies would be able to identify factories and then bomb these targets in Germany. So in February the German Armaments Ministry assigned three letter code marks to each of those companies engaged in fabricating military hardware.

The codes identified the manufacturer and their facility location. So in the interim the government issued appeals for consumers to loan their better binoculars for the war effort. In a replay of the Eyes for the Navy program of , in the U. Navy asked civilians to send in their binoculars for evaluation of suitability for service, these were sent to The U. Naval Observatory, in Washington, D. Government published advertisements asking the public to loan their personal binoculars for the war effort the ads specifically mention Zeiss and Bausch and Lomb.

Navy advertisements soliciting civilian binoculars, this was printed in The text of that ad is below 44, bytes. Click on image to see enlarged view. The newly arrived civilian binocular would be inspected and if found suitable for naval use it would have a Serial No. The number would be a four or five digit number followed by a dash and the year.

So it is possible to find binoculars that were originally made and trademarked for the consumer market bearing military identification markings. It is somewhat ironic that Zeiss optics were pressed into service against the very U-Boats that Zeiss supplied with binoculars and periscopes. Since regulations of the day prohibited Federal agencies, including the military, from the accepting of gifts or free loans the owner of the loaned binocular had to be compensated.

So the owner received a letter from the Navy Bureau of Ships confirming the loan and providing them with the assigned serial number, the letter also enclosed a Public Voucher form to be completed and signed by the citizen. All possible care will be taken, however, to insure their return at the end of the war. And it is certain that not all Germans were sympathetic to the Nazi regime, in fact there are known examples of intervention by the Zeiss Personnel Department to obtain the release from prison of some foreign laborers.

One foreign laborer at Jena recalls visiting a couple whose son was at the Russian front and while there he dialed their radio to listen to the news from London, he was later warned such conduct in wartime Nazi Germany could lead to the death penalty. Zeiss optics figured prominently in the success of many weapons systems.

For examples there were the pressure resistant U-Boat U. One of the most published early photographs of the war shows Adolf Hitler outside of Warsaw, Poland in September of observing through a pair of artillery director periscoping binoculars commonly used by a battery director to evaluate and correct artillery ranging as the city is leveled by German artillery and air forces.

Intricate examples of complex lens making were found bearing Zeiss code marks indicating production after November , even though the need for such sophistication and refinement on one product in a nation beset by lack of raw materials and manpower could be questioned.

The Benutzer rain guard covers the eyepieces and offers protection against dirt or rain and water spray at sea; the personalization of the cover may have applied to a particular user or position watch station for example and is not necessarily indicative of having been made for some otherwise notable person. On the western front the Luftwaffe attacks initially targeted facilities of tactical or strategic importance. In the early periods during the war allied air attacks too targeted facilities of tactical or strategic importance, some of these by Royal Air Force RAF Bomber Command actually struck targets in Germany as early as in March , though with largely symbolic results.

The following months saw these raids expand their reach to purposefully target civilian populations centers with the thought of destroying morale and impacting wartime production.

However, the Luftwaffe had not and would never develop suitable long range bomber aircraft and escorts in the numbers necessary to effectively bomb distant large target areas. Given the distances Luftwaffe escort fighter aircraft had to fly and the home ground advantage of those in the RAF, the Luftwaffe paid dearly for comparatively little results.

By the British RAF too launched air raids that purposefully targeted civilians of German cities. Bombings Affecting Zeiss Facilities: The city of Stuttgart for example was targeted in a series of fifty-three allied air raids that commenced 25 August and continued through the course of the war; the worst raids in obliterated the central district while the Contessa factory in the Henslack district suffered only minor damage. Jena had remained an important University city, a center of science, and because of the Carl Zeiss works and Schott AG it was an important industrial site involved in production for the Nazi Armaments Ministry.

The Konzentrationslager Buchenwald Buchenwald concentration camp established one of their sub-camps in the northern suburbs of Jena, this housed figuratively speaking some 1, prisoners assigned to work for the Löbstedter Reichsbahnausbesserungswerk Reichs road repair shop, or RAW , and later in these prisoners were also made available for repair of Deutsche Reichsbahn German railroad. In addition to defense in the air by Luftwaffe fighter aircraft, Jena would over time build shelters and become defended by antiaircraft flak batteries, barrage balloons, and smoke generating equipment.

On the evening of 16 August four bombs were dropped by the Royal Air Force on the Gelände des Saalbahnhofs railway station of Jena; while the intent may have been to disable the facility the actual damage was more symbolic of what might be to come rather than significant. As early as in April the city of Jena appeared on a list prepared by the British Bomber Command for the British War Cabinet of possible targets to be targeted for incendiary bombing, and by November that year the list had grown to include some fifty-eight cities.

About one third of a typical R. However, the devastation caused by the purposeful incendiary bombings of Lübeck in , Hamburg in , and Dresden in would not be visited upon Jena. On 27 May the R. The city sustained 12 dead and 56 wounded, while the damage was significant owing to the resultant fires.

The raid no doubt impacted the psyche of the citizenry to some degree, and damaged the facilities at Zeiss. The Royal Air Force did not bomb Jena again until three of their aircraft dropped twelve bombs on the city center and southern areas on the evening of 10 March , and again on the evening of 15 March, both instances producing only minimal damage. Jena was never designated by the U.

Air Force as a Primary Target. So Jena was bombed by the U. Eighth Air Force several times late in the war, each time with increasing severity. Michael that was unfortunately heavily damaged over several raids.

Image courtesy of Google. Mouse over to see an overlayed photo taken during an air raid in March depicting some of the bombing pattern centered just to the west of the Saale River and extending up into the railway yards , bytes. Click on the image to see enlarged view of Jena overlayed with the photo taken during an air raid in March , bytes. These were primarily targeting oil facilities in Germany, while also winning a war of attrition against the Luftwaffe who suffered a total 87 aircraft destroyed or damaged against 8 United States bombers and 5 fighters lost.

Nearly two thirds of the U. Michael and the Universitätshauptgebäude University Library , with about 27 tons of bombs. In Jena this caused 98 deaths, 53 seriously injured, and another slightly injured, while some 34 remained unaccounted for. Nearly 60 tons of bombs started falling at Mission dispatched 1, bombers and P fighter aircraft in three groups to strike oil, industrial, and rail transportation targets in Germany.

Owing to cloud coverage over some primary targets several BG aircraft of the second group were diverted to bomb secondary targets, these included the 71 BG that targeted the Zeiss works arriving over Jena at 1 pm.

The city defenses and Luftwaffe had been weakened so that the Bs dropped Of these some dozen or fewer bombs struck the Zeiss and the Schott factories, the remainder striking the railway yard and other facilities. Of this group of BG, 1 was lost and 2 damaged beyond repair while 15 were damaged but repairable.

On Monday, 19 March the United States Eighth Air Force Mission again visited Jena in the strike that caused the most loss of life, severely damaging the historic downtown, again including the Church of St.

The Eighth Air Force records indicate this operation was originally planned to destroy airfields and industrial targets in Germany. The Eighth Air Force forces consisted of 1, bombers in three groups using visual and H2X radar, escorted by and fighter aircraft. The Luftwaffe, though already severely depleted of fuel and experienced pilots, responded to this raid with more than one hundred fighters including a formation of 36 of the recently deployed Me jet aircraft.

Cloud cover prevented aircraft from accurately striking primary targets, so commanders of these groups directed the aircraft to bomb secondary planned objectives and these included the optical works at Jena which was bombed by BG aircraft of the 3rd Air Division commencing at about 1: The bomb load included incendiary devices that were dropped over the city center. The Zeiss factory was struck by about a half dozen bombs that had some effect.

This one raid killed at least people in revised after studies by the City Historian to , leaving some injured, and an estimated 12, people homeless. Almost every old building in the city center was damaged. Overall there were buildings damaged, of these were total losses, while suffered severe damage, with moderate damage, and with lighter damage; Jena had become the most devastated city in the State of Thuringia.

This bombing raid was witnessed by Lucas Van Hilst, he recounted to us: Then suddenly a German soldier on leave grabbed me by the arm. The suction of an explosion threw me down the stairs. He may well have saved my life. An offshoot of this club formed the Kiel Football club the Kieler Sportvereinigung Holstein von e. V, just after WW1, and they continued to play successfully right until the end of WW2. This badge came as a WW2 souvenir from a British Serviceman of WW2, who fought in Germany until , and then transferred to the Military Police to continue to serve during the occupation till He was stationed in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.

It was worn in conjunction with the Nazi Sports badge, which is also for sale in our gallery. A 's Essex Regt. Thus, before , SS officers often chose this all steel and black P-Hilt sabre as it's black and steel configuration was ideal for their service uniform. We show a photograph circa with one officer on the left carrying the degan, and the two others with the steel and black P-Hilt.

Generally it was known as the cavalry sabre due to it's regular cavalry pattern form and used by the German cavalry regiments on horseback. Due to the early uniform of the SS being black and silver the choice remained limited, generally, to the pattern of military swords available that utilized these colours.

The predominant colour normally used, and chosen by the regular Army officers, was brass [or gold] with black. The private purchase swords, generally chosen by those serving in the SS, were this sword or the Prinz Eugen.

Very nice clear focusing optics, a little dusty inside, with original neck strap, Carl Zeiss Jena maker marking. Made for the London market in the 's but used by a German officer in WW2. Possibly as a private purchase piece on a visit to London before the war, or by a German university student in London who later became an officer of the Reich. The firm of Carl Zeiss was founded in Jena in and grew to be the most dominant optical and fine mechanical firm in the world at the beginning of the twentieth century through Lahti L is a semi-automatic pistol designed by Aimo Lahti that was produced from to just after the war.

About pistols were made in four production series. The weapon had a bolt accelerator to improve reliability in cold conditions or when fouled. This kind of system was rare for pistols. It also resembled the German Luger P08 pistol. Finnish military designation 9. It was reliable, accurate and sturdy pistol, but also one of the largest and heaviest 9-mm military pistols ever manufactured.

Structure of the this strong looking pistol had its week point: Powerful submachinegun-ammunition often used by Finnish troops with these pistols could crack the pistols slide quite easily.

As all 9 mm x 19 ammunition manufactured during World War 2 in Finland was hot loaded submachinegun-ammunition using this ammunition also pistols of same calibre unfortunately wasn't exactly unusual during World War 2 and years after it. When the slides of L broke down in larger numbers Finnish military soon found itself needing replacements for them.

Because of this many series of replacement slides were manufactured for Finnish military after World War 2. Most of these pistols all but series 4 have shoulder stock attachment lugs. While the Finns developed and tested wooden shoulder stocks and wooden shoulder stock holsters for these pistols, these were never manufactured in real numbers and the pistols were issued without them.

A superb, single, micro engineered ball race, one of a pair of spare parts, [and to be sold by us separately] we acquired from the late collection of Professor Samuel Eilenberg, Emeritus Professor of Mathematics at Columbia University in WW2.

One of the spare parts used during the construction of 'Little Boy' Uranium Bomb, part of the ultra top secret Manhattan Project. This example is plain and un-engraved. Souvenirs of the Manhattan Project were taken by [or presented to] many of the consultants and scientists working on, or associated with, the greatest secret project of the 20th century, once the project was officially closed down in regards to Little Boy. For information purposes the diameter of the ball race is mm which is within a small tolerance of the diameter of the gun barrel [mm] that was central to the construction of 'Little Boy'.

This measurement may indeed be relevant to the ball races actual function or use within the project. Unfortunately due to the top secret nature of the whole event Prof Eilenberg did not reveal the ball races function, or even his no doubt significant personal contribution within the project, before his death in January , only that he acquired it at Los Alamos in August , apparently given out by Oppenheimer.

The scientific research was directed by American physicist J. The project succeeded in developing and detonating three nuclear weapons in The project's roots lay in scientists' fears since the s that Nazi Germany was also investigating nuclear weapons of its own. It resulted in the creation of multiple production and research sites that operated in secret.

The three primary research and production sites of the project were the plutonium-production facility at what is now the Hanford Site, the uranium-enrichment facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the weapons research and design laboratory, now known as Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Project research took place at over thirty different sites across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The MED maintained control over U. It was taken on 7th August [the day after Little Boy was detonated]. These photographs were sent to the Manhattan Project HQ, but why, to us, this remains a mystery. Also, another souvenir, the serial tag from the Army Air Corps Bell and Howell sound projector, that apparently showed the original film of the detonation of 'Little Boy' to Professor Eilenburg and others from the project after the Enola Gay mission.

Those souvenirs are for sale with the engrave ball race not this one. We show in the gallery, for information only, a Paul R. Halmos photograph of Samuel Eilenberg , left, and Gordon T. Whyburn in at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Edinburgh.

For example, in relation to the desirability of original items connected to this monumentally historical mission, two other pieces were sold some 14 years ago in the US. The Little Boy was armed on the mission by removing the green safety plugs, and arming it with red arming plugs. This was undertaken by 23 year old Lt. Morris Richard Jeppson, who armed the bomb during the flight. For this perilous task he was awarded the Silver Star for his unique contribution to the mission.

Jeppson, however, kept a few of the green plugs that signified his role in the bombing. We were very fortunate to acquire these fascinating pieces, from Prof Eilenberg's collection, from a Doctor and lecturer of oriental studies, who acquired them himself some years ago from a dear colleague of Prof Eilenberg.

This less expensive of the two ball race we have does not bear engraving and does not come with the camera plate or photos either. One way to distinguish between the regiments of Foot Guards is the spacing of buttons on the tunic. The Welsh Guards have buttons arranged in groups of five. Its first battle was some months after its initial arrival, at Loos on September 27, The regiment was increased to three Battalions during the Second World War.

The 2nd Battalion fought in Boulogne in whilst the 1st fought in Belgium as part of the British Expeditionary Force.

Christopher Furness who was killed in the action. The Welsh Guards were subsequently part of the legendary Evacuation of Dunkirk that saw over , British and French troops return to the UK against all odds.

Welsh Guards in action near Cagny 19 July While they battled on in those theatres the 1st and 2nd joined the Guards Armoured Division, with the 1st Battalion being infantry and the 2nd armoured.

The two battalions worked closely, being the first troops to re-enter Brussels on September 3, after an advance of miles in one day in what was described as 'an armoured lash unequalled for speed in this or any other war'. Silver metal scabbard, decorated with tradition patterning and is dated with Islamic date AH, but this may be a later dated scabbard. Just returned from 10 hours conservation cleaning in our workshop.

The khanjar or janbiya is curved and sharpened on both edges. It is carried in a sheath decorated in silver, on a belt similarly decorated in silver filigree. A khanjar appears on the flag of Oman, as part of the national emblem of Oman. The release of the Khanjar from its sheath before the s was considered a social taboo and men would only do that if they sought revenge or assassination.

Lawrence of Arabia had several very similar ones presented to him, they were his favourite dagger, and he was frequently photographed wearing them.

One picture is a photo of T. Like many edged weapons in other cultures, the jambiya has acquired a history of magical thinking. There is a long history of the janbiya. Evidence of the oldest janbiyas show they were worn in Sheban times, in the Himiarite kingdom; a statue of the Sheban king dating from B. Today, the janbiya is the main customary accessory to the clothing worn by traditionally garbed Arab men.

It is said that no man is complete without his janbiya. The janbiya is worn around the waist, either vertically in front as with the Yemeni 'aseeb janbiya or angled as with the Yemini tuza jambiya , or horizontally at the waist in front e. The man in this photo has his turned towards the front, typical of those who carry this type of jambiya, called a "Dharia".

He who abandons his janbiya, whatever the conditions, would be defamed by his peers and acquaintances. A Beautiful Graf Zeppelin Frame with Original Olympics Photo Card A beautiful easel mounted picture frame in florid relief patterned britannia metal, with a portrait bust in relief of Graf Zeppelin. It displays a Berlin stamped photo card of the Olympice rings in Berlin in A fantastic piece of 's German Olympic memorablia.

It was first created in in both countries and consists of a square-cross medal on two crossed swords, hanging from a ribbon with various degree pins. The croix de guerre was also commonly bestowed to foreign military forces allied to France and Belgium.

The croix de guerre may either be bestowed as a unit award or to individuals who distinguish themselves by acts of heroism involving combat with enemy forces. The medal is also awarded to those who have been "mentioned in despatches", meaning a heroic deed was performed meriting a citation from an individual's headquarters unit. The unit award of the croix de guerre was issued to military commands who performed heroic deeds in combat and were subsequently recognized by headquarters.

A good size serving trasy or dish 30cm across. Made in hand beaten German hallmarked silver grade in the form of scalloped shell. Made to celebrate the record braking summer Olympic Games season of the Zeppelin Hindenburg in D-LZ was a large German commercial passenger-carrying rigid airship, the lead ship of the Hindenburg class, the longest class of flying machine and the largest airship by envelope volume.

Designed and built by the Zeppelin Company Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH on the shores of the Bodensee Lake Constance in Friedrichshafen, the airship flew from March until destroyed by fire 14 months later on May 6, , at the end of the first North American transatlantic journey of its second season of service.

The Hindenburg made 17 round trips across the Atlantic Ocean in , its first and only full year of service, with ten trips to the United States and seven to Brazil. In July , the airship also completed a record Atlantic double crossing in five days, 19 hours and 51 minutes. Among the famous passengers who travelled on the airship was German heavyweight boxing champion Max Schmeling, who returned home on the Hindenburg to a hero's welcome after knocking out Joe Louis in New York on June 19, During the season the airship flew , miles , km , carried 2, passengers, and transported tons of freight and mail, a level of success that encouraged the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin Company to plan the expansion of its airship fleet and transatlantic services.

The airship was reportedly so stable that a pen or pencil could be stood on a table without falling. Its launches were so smooth that passengers often missed them, believing that the airship was still docked to its mooring mast.

Hindenburg passengers were generally affluent, including many public figures, entertainers, noted sportsmen, political figures, and leaders of industry. The Hindenburg was used again for propaganda purposes when it flew over the Olympic Stadium in Berlin on August 1 during the opening ceremonies of the Summer Olympic Games. Shortly before the arrival of Adolf Hitler to declare the Games open, the airship crossed low over the packed stadium while trailing the Olympic flag on a long weighted line suspended from its gondola.

Olympiafahrt Berlin flown Hindenburg cover. Weight approx 22 oz Troy. Bearing a blue stone it the handle. Silver plated over brass. A most attractive piece of gentlemans deskware. Originally formed under the Air Raid Precautions ARP organisation, later to become the Civil Defence organisation , were two groups established to add to the overall arrangements for reporting and dealing with small fires caused by air raids, especially those caused or likely to be caused by the hundreds of thousands of incendiary bombs that were dropped.

As came, and the months passed, leading up to the outbreak of World War 2, it was identified that the Regular Fire Brigade and the Auxiliary Fire Service alone would not be able to cope with fires caused by sustained incendiary attack.

It was though recognized that suitably trained and equipped householders could provide a valuable resource for dealing within the vicinity of where they lived and also as a means of providing early firefighting measures in commercial and occupational premises.

These volunteers were recruited to operate in the vicinity of their own home and street and were formed into small teams of 3 to 5 persons and trained to tackle small fires caused by incendiary bombs or to extinguish the incendiary bomb itself using water supplied by a stirrup pump or the application of sand. Also marked for its designer; Fec. Magnetic plate and pin. The clasp is die-cast zinc, with a slightly curved centerpiece consisting of the national emblem surmounting a crossed bayonet and hand grenade.

The award was bestowed in three classes: For 15 battles of close combat a Bronze Class was awarded. For 25 battles of close combat a Silver Class was awarded. In order to receive this distinguished decoration, all battles and their dates had to be officially documented by the battle commander, verified by the general in charge and authenticated by several divisions of the war department.

It was possible that more than one close combat battle per day was fought and therefore recorded as a separate entity. An exemption was made if the soldier was wounded in battle so badly that his injuries precluded a return to the front.

In such a case, the criteria were reduced to 10, 20 and 40 battles. The highest number of battles in combat recorded is listed at 84 by SS-Hauptscharführer Hermann Maringgele. In a version for the German Air Force was created to note the increasing number of Air Force personnel and paratroopers taking part in direct combat The decoration was designed by the military artist Wilhelm Ernst Peekhaus.

The badge was die-cast and made mainly of zinc. Depending on the manufacturer the clasp is either straight or slightly curved and measures between 95mm to 97mm wide. The design features a central motif consisting of the national emblem of eagle and swastika surmounting a crossed bayonet and stick grenade.

The centerpiece was cut out and backed with a thin, flat square steel, crimped in place on the reverse. The gold and silver awards were often plated in the same metal, whilst the bronze badge was lacquered with a composition called brennlack Eligibility;Soldiers of the Heer, Kriegsmarine and Waffen-SS Awarded for Achievement in hand-to-hand fighting in close quarters.

ERII replacement issue in superb condition court mounted. South Arabia; This campaign is related to the Radfan Campaign, because both were Egyptian-inspired attempts to end the British presence in Aden and end the embryonic Federation of South Arabia. This 3 year long campaign saw numerous terrorist attacks on both civilian and military targets.

In both Rafan and Aden, the British Army suffered 90 personnel killed and wounded. The qualifying period was 30 days service in the Federation of South Arabia between 1 August and 30 November A fascinating collection outlining a WW1 German soldier's military career.

He was a trench warfare Mortar Grenade operator [the Granatenwerfer 16]. See photo in the gallery [for information only]. It would make a charming and fascinating gift as it is researchable to see where this soldier served, on which front and where his unit fought and when. Next to the Victoria Cross, it is the most famous medal in the world. The Iron Cross was awarded for bravery in battle as well as other conspicuos military contributions in a battlefield environment.

The Iron Cross 2nd Class came with a ribbon and was worn in one of two different methods: When in formal dress, the entire cross was worn mounted alone or as part of a medal bar. For everyday wear, only the ribbon was worn from the second hole in the tunic button. It was designed by the neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and reflects the cross borne by the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century.

The ribbon for the , and Iron Cross 2nd Class was black with two thin white bands, the colours of Prussia. The non-combatant version of this award had the same medal, but the black and white colours on the ribbon were reversed. Initially the Iron Cross was worn with the blank side out. This did not change until when the sprig facing could be presented.

Since the Iron Cross was issued over several different periods of German history, it was annotated with the year indicating the era in which it was issued. The reverse of the , and series of Iron Crosses have the year "" appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the year the award was created. The final version shows a swastika. It was also possible for a holder of the Iron Cross to be awarded a second or higher grade of the Iron Cross. In such cases, a " Clasp" Spange would be worn on the original Iron Cross.

A similar award was made in but was quite rare, since there were few in service who held the Iron Cross. For the First Class award the Spange appears as an eagle with the date "" that was pinned above the Cross. Although two separate awards, in some cases the holders soldered them together. As with all our items, each one comes with our unique, lifetime guarantee, certificate of authenticity.

Early WW2 Having traded in the same location for 60 years or so our company has met some many hundreds of thousands of most remarkable people, and heard too many fantastic stories [or tales] to remember.

Every week something new is learnt, or someone new is met. This week an aged lady, with a most fascinating story, let us acquire this most intriguing piece. Not valuable, or even that impressive in fact, but it's position in the development of modern edged weaponry is quite fascinating. This is or was a prototype close combat dagger came to us from the niece of a one time cutler and assistant knife designer [trained by the veteran Wilkinson swordsmith Tom Beesley] who was briefly working with Capt.

Fairbairn [via Wilkinson Sword Co. The handle from this dagger was created and based from small cast brass Wilkinson court sword parts, with a square block and oval quillon. The blade, formed to create a strong, rigid short double edged blade, that has good stout piercing properties came from a long Wilkinson sword blade. No edge was ever put on this blade, but one can easily see how the FS knife may have evolved from this early war period prototype design.

We are only distressed that we have no design schematics and paperwork, that were we were told were once in existence, to show how the knife was eventually designed. Sadly and woe alas all the paperwork was discarded some two decades after the war as seemingly insignificant.

Naturally it is certainly possible he ought not to have done so. Launched in used in WW2 as a Troopship, then restored to service as the worlds greatest luxury cruise ship after the war. Consistent with Nazi ideology, the airship was expected to be more than just a private commercial venture; it was to be a public symbol of the new German nation. In a speech marking the founding of the DZR, Göring commented: Also in the South American route was extended to Rio de Janeiro.

Deutsche Zeppelin-Reederei ceased operations as the commercial use of airships came to an abrupt end on 6 May , when the 'Hindenburg' exploded at Lakehurst. This large silver tray is made of German silver plate, 90 grade, and was the product of the same silver company that made the the Third Reich military cutlery and other silver objects for the Third Reich hierarchy - Gbr. His company alongside his rival, Wellner, was a maker of much of the Fuhrer's formal dinnerware, and the Reich chancellery dinnerware pieces.

Many items by were used in several of Hitler's residences, the Hotel [Der Deutscher Hof] personally used by Hitler, and numerous state offices. After the German invasion of Poland in , the Luftwaffe ordered the last two Zeppelin airships moved to a large Zeppelin hangar in Frankfurt. In March of , Goring ordered their destruction and the aluminum fed into the Nazi war industry. In May, a fire broke out in the Zeppelin facility which destroyed most of the remaining parts.

The rest of the parts and materials were soon scrapped with almost no trace of the German "Giants of the Air" remaining by the end of the year.

A East Riding Rgt. A great and impressive steel bowl guard cavalry sword, used by one of the great WW1 'pals' regiments of East Yorkshire, and part of this cavalry regiment served in one of the most famous areas of the Great War, in Arabia, under the direct command of T.

Sword marked East Riding Regt. The story of the Lawrence connection is as follows; In the Regiment was part of the Western Frontier Force, a fairly uninteresting posting , causing NCOs and men to join the newly formed Imperial Camel Corps and officers and men to be detached for service under T.

The regiment was formed as volunteer cavalry in during the French Revolutionary Wars. On May 20, the Regiment formed part of a parade of some 40, men before H. The King and Lord Kitchener. In October they set sail for Alexandria. The Regiment first saw action during the First Battle of Gaza, a hard engagement for both the men and the horses, and in the Second Gaza Battle it was posted to the far right flank.

A Squadron led 22nd Mounted Brigade, having captured their objective they pressed on to Akir and established a position on the far side of the village square, however they had to withdraw as they were unsupported by the rest of the Brigade.

Sadly it transpired that the village was the location of a Turkish Corps Headquarters, and had the success of the attack been exploited then a major dislocation of the enemy lines could have resulted. El Mughar was the last great cavalry charge of the British Army. In December , with the exception of the machine gun section the Regiment was dismounted and sent to France.

The Battalion saw action several times in the closing months of the war in the area around Cambrai supporting attacks by the 49th West Riding Division, 51st Highland Division and 56th London Infantry Divisions. In , another reorganisation resulted in further change, the Regiment was reconstituted as The East Riding Yeomanry a Divisional Cavalry Regiment Mechanised equipped with 28 light tanks, 44 carriers and 41 motorcycles, and in a duplicate 2nd line regiment was raised.

The regiment's World War II story. The remnants of 1 ERY 7 officers and men returned to Tidworth, where the Regiment was brought up to strength by drafts from the 2nd Regiment, prior to moving onto Bovington to rejoin 1st Armoured Reconnaissance Brigade. They next deployed to Essex for anti-invasion duties, where it was equipped with Beavettes.

The training all came to fruition on June 6, , when the Regiment landed on D Day supporting 9th Infantry Brigade in 3rd Division, and for the following fifty days they took part in the bridgehead battles. During this period they also supported 59th Staffordshire Infantry Division. In October, the Regiment supported 53rd Welsh Division, in Holland fighting around 's-Hertogenbosch and the later crossing of the Maas.

However, during the winter of , it was hurried away to reinforce the pressure being put on the German "Bulge", and then in January returned to 79th Armoured Division, and re-equipped with Buffalo, to carry the troops of 15th Scottish Division, on the assault crossing of the Rhine March For the last weeks of the war, the Regiment reconverted to Shermans, coming under the command of the Canadian Army clearing Holland.

This is a troopers battle sword in every sense of the word, and with it's regimental markings it comes with it's own built-in provenence. It also has various ordnance inspection and issue marks and has obvious signs of combat use, but the blade is superb. This is truly a iconic example of a Great British Army cavalry trooper's sword, from of one of the great North of England volunteer regiments.

Like so many other British Army regiments, a regiment that goes down in the annals of military history as deserving the greatest honour and respect, a force of men bathed in stories of nobility, heroism, glory, valour and self sacrifice. A Fabulous Original Movie Poster. The pilot who rescued Nobile also crashed when returning to rescue more survivors and had to be rescued himself. O'Brien as Radio Operator uncredited. On it's original detachable two part flag pole [around 9 foot high in total] with flag pole top, and later honour ribbons dated and the Imperial German Battle Flag with gold bullion fringing.

Two sided, and with areas of old moth hole and small tears. A fabulous display piece and remarkably rare piece of history.

An entire series of Freikorps awards also existed, mostly replaced in by the Honour Cross for World War I veterans. This parade banner was used, during the interwar period, by the Freikorps as an symbol of old comeradeship on their marches and drive protests through the streets of Berlin and Cities of the pre and early German Third Reich. Hitler viewed some of them as threats. A huge ceremony was arranged on November 9, in which the Freikorps leaders symbolically presented their old battle flags to Hitler's SA and SS.

It was a sign of allegiance to their new authority, the Nazi state. When Hitler's internal purge of the party, the Night of the Long Knives, came in , a large number of Freikorps leaders were targeted for killing or arrest, including Ehrhardt and Röhm.

Historian Robert GL Waite claims that in Hitler's "Röhm Purge" speech to the Reichstag on July 13, , he implied that the Freikorps were one of the groups of "pathological enemies of the state". Flag is 55 inches x 37 inches. Awarded to a WW2 RAF officer, and just one medal short [the defence medal] of the maximum amount of medals any man serving in the Army, Navy or RAF could have been awarded for the entire war. This is an incredible symbol of an extraordinary service career in the war.

Set's and artists provided a theatrical view of Germany's Grand Fleet and Airships using clever sets, backdrops and marionettes. A little like America's P. Barnum's circus and curiosity side shows, but more typically Germanic, having a greater militaristic perspective. Adolph Friedländer, Hamburg", selten. The reservists flask was a peculiarly German artifact, and alongside the bier stein absolutely typical of the Germanic age of the early 20th century. The flask is an alloy depicting an embossed Zeppelin, an embossed plane and another, an anchor and a panel for luftschiff reserve service, and a similar for the flieger reserve service.

It has a mono plane cup holder with a young pilot and his fraulein drinking and reveling. The front panel opens on a hinge revealing a picture behind the flask and a holder for cigarettes. It has wear and aging, but for the Imperial German WW1 reservist flask and stein collector you could probably not find a better or more desirable example. Overall 9 inches, repaired plane wing. Overall 9 inches tall by 5 inches wide by 2 inches deep. Caricature; World War I scene.

Gigantic "Zeppelin " tows the Eifel Tower, a fountain, the Great Sphinx, and the Kremlin as it approaches [Spain]; three soldiers and Don Quixote observe from the ground, below. There is a copy of this poster in Princeton University Library. Armengol [Henri Armengol-Duriez] - In complimentary free frame, 24 inches x Comprising of his Glengarry cap with badge and tartan patch, his pair of WW1 service medals [named], his sporran with belt, his pair of gaiters in canvas, shoulder titles both Gordons and Machine Gun Corps, his Machine Gun Corps cap badge and sock tassles.

Photos for illustration only including a Gordon Highlanders machine gun corps, photographed in June Captain Hume Gore, who was later to lead George Ramage's platoon, is seated third from right in the front row.

The Regiment raised a total of 21 battalions and was awarded 57 battle honours, 4 Victoria Crosses and lost 8, men during the course of the war. These weapons would have been brigaded when the Machine Gun Corps was formed in The guns, and crews, would have been formed into a Machine Gun Company.

The 2nd Battalion landed at Zeebrugge as part of the 20th Brigade in the 7th Division in October for service on the Western Front and then moved to Italy in November Nov Moved to Italy to strengthen the Italian resistance. The grip has three 'cuts' on the obverse these represent 3 fatal close combats of the Lance Corporal. During the bridge attempt, and failure of objective, he was ordered to fall back to Defence HQ in the town, where he and subsequently few others managed to withdraw and cross the river to be picked up by the Polish Paras, that had been dropped at the wrong drop zone at the beginning of the operation.

This close combat knife he used instead of his issue FS knife. It was his souvenir war trophy, apparently from a German Fallshirmjager taken earlier in his war. Operation Market Garden , Arnhem. The British faced a number of serious problems in the landing zone. Nearly all the vehicles used by the Airborne Reconnaissance Squadron were lost when the gliders carrying them failed to land. Therefore the advance into Arnhem itself was delayed but also had to be done almost entirely on foot.

The job of the Reconnaissance Squadron was to move off in jeeps etc. This they could not do after the loss of their vehicles. The maps issued to officers also proved to be less than accurate. The British paratroopers came under German fire. Only the 2nd Battalion lead by Lt. Frost moved forward with relative ease but even they were occasionally halted by German fire. Frost's men were the most southerly of the British units and the Germans had covered their route to Arnhem less well than the other routes the British were to use.

When Frost got to the bridge at Arnhem, he only had about men. He secured the northern end of the bridge and the buildings around it but he remained heavily exposed to a German attack across the bridge as the British had failed to secure the southern end of the bridge. Around Arnhem, British troops, engaged in combat with the SS, took heavy casualties. By now, the Germans were being reinforced with Tiger tanks. Despite being short of ammunition and with no food or water, Frost's men continued fighting.

A German who fought in the final battle for the bridge wrote: Hand grenades flew in every direction. Each house had to be taken this way. Some of the British offered resistance to their last breath. Lance Corporal Wallace [it may have been spelled Wallis] told Ivor "this knife has the blood of German men on it".

We also have Ivor's huge Tru-Bal combat-throwing knife that he used in 44 Para Commando [sold separately]. This is a complete shell and detonator case that takes 3 shells and complete with 2 fuze heads and 3 charge detonator bases with adjustable charge discs.

This case is clearly marked Luft so likely for issue and use Luftwaffe Fallshirmjager.

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